Conditions Treated

These are a list of conditions treated or supported. Please click on the links below for more info.

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Acid Reflux |Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease GORD

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), or acid reflux, is a chronic condition in which the content of the stomach regurgitates (backs up or refluxes) into the oesophagus causing inflammation and damage to the lining of the oesophagus. Stomach contents include hydrochloric acid and pepsin to initiate protein digestion, which can be very corrosive in the wrong place. In some people they may also have bile which has backed up from the duodenum coming into the stomach, which alters the pH and the integrity of gastric digestion, and further irritates the oesophageal lining. Reflux is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the oesophagus and the stomach. This can be due to incompetence of the lower oesophageal sphincter, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the oesophagus, or a hiatus hernia. Respiratory and laryngeal manifestations of GORD, where reflux affects the throat and respiratory tract, are commonly referred to as extra- oesophageal reflux disease (EERD). In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind acid reflux and GORD using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Acne Rosacea

Acne rosacea is an inflammatory skin disorder that begins as redness across the cheeks, nose and/or forehead but can also sometimes affect the neck, chest, scalp or ears. The disorder can be confused with and exist at the same time as other skin conditions such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. It is thought that rosacea is caused by blood vessels becoming damaged when repeatedly dilated by some sort of stimuli, such as being hot often like in a sauna or from having heat in the body from a liver condition or from infections, causing the blood vessels to dilate and remain dilated for long periods of time resulting in redness. Helicobacter pylori infection can be implicated, or in fact any infection in the skin and/or gut. Immune cells and inflammatory chemicals leak from the micro-vascular bed causing inflammatory pustules and papules giving rise to the condition also looking like acne. In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind acne rosacea using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Acne Vulgaris

Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of the skin that affects those areas which contain the largest sebaceous glands, including the nose, forehead, cheeks, chin, back, and trunk. Rising androgen levels characteristic of adolescence, induces insulin resistance and alters cellular signalling, influencing the amount of sebum produced by sebaceous glands. In turn, this causes blockage of hair follicles, leading to the formation of small cysts called comedones as well as proliferation of a bacteri called  Propioni bacterium that can further aggravate the skin and cause more pustulations .

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind acne vulgaris using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

ADD – ADHD

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder characterised by persistent and developmentally inappropriate levels of over activity, inattention and impulsivity; a condition that can persist into adulthood.

ADHD is the most common psychiatric disorder in youth with 9.5% of school aged children affected in Australia and New Zealand. This figure has risen with increasing awareness, as well as an actual increase, of the condition. The disorder not only interferes with the learning ability of a child, but also creates a great deal of stress in family life and interpersonal relationships.

Behaviour is affected in ADHD is due to imbalances of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenalin affecting the executive functions of the prefrontal cortex of the brain – the area of the brain involved in planning complex cognitive behaviours, personal expression, decision making and moderating social behaviour.

Patients may have either too little of too much of these neurotransmitters, have defective receptor function and / or methylation defects on dopamine receptors that ultimately compromises the fluidity of neuronal membranes and neuronal synchronisation during attention demanding tasks.

Currently there are no biomedical tests for ADHD, so the condition is diagnosed by the observation of behavioural symptoms. The diagnostic criteria for ADHD are 9 symptoms in two areas of mental functioning: inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (see symptoms below). A child only needs 6 of these 9 symptoms in either area to obtain a diagnosis. There are around 500 different possible combinations of these 9 symptoms which means a child can present in a number of different ways and still reach a diagnosis of ADHD. Due to the variability of symptoms, ADHD has been classified
into 3 subtypes:

1. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive: majority of symptoms are in the hyperactivity/impulsivity category

2. Predominantly inattentive: majority of symptoms are in the inattentive category

3. Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive: 6 or more symptoms of each type.

Several lines of evidence support a disturbance in the gut/brain/immune (GBI) axis. The gut/brain axis is particularly affected as toxicity and food constituents have been identified as drivers of brain dysfunction in ADHD. Family studies also reveal a strong genetic link in ADHD, where multiple genes have been identified which involve in dopamine receptors or transport.

However it is also recognized that environmental triggers, such as heavy metals are shown to induce oxidative stress, lower intracellular glutathione levels and inhibit methylation in neurons, contributing to the ADHD phenotype. The condition called pyrrole disorder has also been implicated with ADD and ADHD. see pyrrole disorder.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating ADD and ADHD using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body and mind.

Allergies – Food

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system responds to an otherwise normal substance (allergen) as though it is a threat to the body. In most reactions, the immune system produces IgE antibodies. When these antibodies react with the suspect substance (allergen), histamine and other chemicals are released.

This process then creates the allergic symptoms such as itching, swelling, hives, and breathing difficulties. While most food allergies are mild, in some cases they can cause an anaphylactic reaction. This type of reaction can be life-threatening, so food allergies must be taken seriously.

However the majority of reactions to foods are caused by immune stimulated reactions which as classified as food intolerances or food hypersensitivity and can occur because a person lacks the enzymes needed for proper digestion, such as lactose in milk, or because they have a sensitivity to preservatives and additives, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulphites and gluten. Some adverse reactions can be caused by food-borne microbial pathogens and toxins. In other instances a person may have leaky gut syndrome or SIBO (small intestine bacterial overgrowth) that is triggering food sensitivities.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind food allergies and intolerances using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhoea is the absence of menses (menstrual flow). Interference with hypothalamic/pituitary functioning plays a major role in the disorder. Amenorrhoea may be present with other conditions or abnormalities, including hirsutism, obesity, and galactorrhea.

Primary amenorrhea is defined as the failure of menses to begin once a woman reaches 16 years of age, whether or not other pubertal changes such as breast development/pubic or axillary hair are present.

Secondary amenorrhoea is the absence of menses for the length of time equal to three consecutive normal menstrual cycles, in a woman who has previously experienced cyclical menses.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind amenorrhoea using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

Andropause – Male Menopause

Lowered hormone levels giving rise to such symptoms as loss of libido, nervousness, depression, decreased muscle strength and mass, impaired memory, impotence, inability to concentrate, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, hot flushes and sweating is also called andropause.

Andropause is usually the result of gradual hormone reduction and an increase in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). These changes start around 30 and decline by 10% every decade after that.

Premature andropause can occur in men who experience excessive female hormones through exposure to oestrogen such as men who work in the pharmaceutical industry, near incinerators, plastics factories and on farms that use pesticides, as well as those that use steroids or eat hormone added chicken products. In Australia, about 40% of men in their 50’s experience andropause, 1 in every 200 men under the age of 60 and about 1 in every 10 men over 60 have low hormones such as testosterone and DHEA.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating andropause using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Antibiotic side effects

Antibiotics, whilst lifesaving in an acute infection, are unfortunately associated with a wide range of side effects and can predispose people towards allergy, yeast infection and the development of ‘resistant strains’ of bacteria. The human digestive system plays host to a wide range of bacteria and other organisms, and is severely disrupted by antibiotics, which are non-selective and tend to kill beneficial as well as pathogenic organisms.

Treatment should be aimed at reducing the risk of side effects during a course of antibiotics (such as diarrhoea or thrush) and restoring a healthy gut and immune system following the treatment. Some conditions require long-term administration of antibiotics, and therefore supportive treatment may also need to be on an ongoing basis.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the why you needed antibiotics and what is the best way to support the process using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Anxiety / Panic Disorder

Anxiety is a feeling often described as butterflies in the stomach, apprehension, fear, excessive worry and is often accompanied by heart palpitations, feeling as if having a heart attack, throbbing sensations and a feeling of panic.

It is a common condition that can be a response to a stress such as exams, something very new not experienced before or it can be pathologic. Anxiety can be a primary disorder, or it can be associated with a medical illness such as depression, or hormonal imbalances such as thyroid conditions or can be as a result of a biochemical imbalance such as pyroluria.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind anxiety using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration. For more on anxiety please click here.

Asthma

In susceptible individuals asthma is an inflammatory condition causing recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning. Asthma involves many cells and cellular elements; in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells.

Episodes of asthma are usually associated with widespread but variable airflow obstruction that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment. The inflammation also causes an associated increase in the existing bronchial responsiveness to a variety of stimuli. Asthma symptoms are characteristically worse during sleep and may be intensified by emotion, exertion, exercise, concurrent infections and stress.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating asthma, using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries characterised by inflammation and build-up of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the blood vessel wall.

These build-ups results in plaque formation, obstruction, poor blood flow and diminished oxygen supply to key important organs.

Other potential complications of atherosclerosis include kidney damage, e.g., from renal artery stenosis; claudication and even gangrene from peripheral arterial occlusion; and mesenteric ischaemia or bowel infarction from involvement of the splanchnic circulation and possible aneurysm formation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind atherosclerosis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Autistic spectrum support

Autism, or more correctly, Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a series of neuro-developmental disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, social withdrawal and communication deficits.

Patients with ASD display a wide range of cognitive ability, ranging from mental retardation to high functioning adults with an above average IQ. There are three main categories of ASD:

1. Autistic disorder
The diagnosis of autistic disorder is given to individuals with significant impairments in social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours which are generally evident prior to three years of age.

There are subtypes of autism:

a. Regressive Autism: When a child appears to develop normally but then starts to lose speech and social skills, typically between the ages of 15 and 30 months.

b. Infantile Autism: When a child does not achieve developmental milestones and if effectively determined to have had autism from infancy.

2. Asperger’s disorder
Individuals with Asperger’s disorder have some difficulties with social interaction and social communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours. However, those with Asperger’s disorder do not have a significant delay in early language acquisition, cognitive abilities or self-help skills. The condition is often detected later than autism as speech usually develops at the expected age.

3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) – This diagnosis is made when an individual has a marked social impairment but fails to meet the full criteria for either autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder. These individuals may also have some communication impairments and/or restricted or repetitive interests, activities and behaviours.

The diagnosis of ASD is based exclusively on a particular developmental pattern in the child and has historically been considered a psychiatric disorder. Whilst a diagnosis is made on observation and there are no quantitative biochemical tests to confirm diagnosis, there is evidence that indicates numerous biochemical abnormalities in these children, including oxidative stress, decreased methylation capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, heavy metal accumulation, intestinal dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, immune dysregulation,  cerebral hypofusion and can also include biochemical imbalances such as pyrrole disorder.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating health disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the person.

Auto-Immune diseases

Autoimmunity is defined as an inappropriate reaction of the immune system to the body’s own tissues. It is characterised by a loss of discrimination of self from non-self tissues, and leads to an ongoing and often severe inflammatory response.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause autoimmune disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Breast Cancer support

Breast cancer is characterised by the malignant growth of epithelial cells of the breast ducts or lobules. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Australia and New Zealand women, currently with one in nine women being diagnosed before the age of 85.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind breast cancer using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration, as well as support during and after any medical intervention needed.

Bronchitis

Viruses, bacteria, parasites, smoking, or inhalation of chemical pollutants or dust may cause inflammation that may lead to bronchitis which is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, or bronchi. Bronchi are the air passages that extend from the trachea into the small airways and alveoli.

During an episode of acute bronchitis, the cells of the bronchial-lining tissue are irritated and the air passages become clogged by debris and irritation increases. In response, large amounts of mucous develops, which causes the characteristic cough of bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis may result from a series of attacks of acute bronchitis, or it may gradually evolve because of heavy smoking or inhalation of air contaminated with other environmental pollutants. When so-called smoker’s cough is continual rather than occasional, the mucous-producing layer of the bronchial lining will thicken, narrowing the airways to the point where breathing becomes increasingly difficult.

With immobilisation of the cilia that sweep the air clean of foreign irritants, the bronchial passages become more vulnerable to further infection and the spread of tissue damage.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating bronchitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Candida/Candidiasis support

Candidiasis is a yeast, or fungal, infection caused by several species of Candida, the most predominant being Candida albicans. Although approximately 80% of healthy individuals will have normal colonisation in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, and rectum, most produce bacterial flora to protect against infections.

The primary subtypes are:
• Oral candidiasis (thrush)
• Perlèche (candidal angular cheilitis)
• Cutaneous disease
• Vulvovaginitis
• Disseminated candidiasis (can affect lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, brain, and eyes)
• Gastrointestinal candidiasis
• Urinary tract candidiasis
• Candidal endocarditis (often due to damaged or prosthetic cardiac valves, or long-term intravenous catheter use)
• Central nervous system candidiasis (extremely rare)
• Chronic candidiasis (occurs predominantly in immunosuppressed patients)

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind candida overgrowth using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cardiovascular Metabolic Disorder

Together, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 Diabetes and classified as cardiovascular-metabolic disorders and are the most common age-related chronic diseases, but now more and more younger patients are also developing this cluster of dysfunction. Cardiovascular metabolic disorders are associated with Metabolic Syndrome, defined as a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease. All the symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome are related to three key factors: insulin resistance; visceral obesity; and endothelial dysfunction and these three factors perpetuate each other in a vicious cycle.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind these disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cellulite

Cellulite describes dimpling of skin, caused by the protrusion of subcutaneous fat into the dermis creating an undulating dermal-subcutaneous fat junction adipose tissue.

Some say that cellulite is the accumulation of toxins trapped purposefully in fat cells as a way to protect the body from circulating toxins and therefore the remedy is a comprehensive detoxification program.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind cellulite using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cervical dysplasia support

Cervical dysplasia refers to neoplastic changes in the cervical epithelium. Previously called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), it is now called squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and classified as low grade (LSIL) or high grade (HSIL). The degree of neoplasia is determined based on the extent of mitosis, nuclear atypia, and cell immaturity.

The morphological continuum toward cervical cancer ranges from low to high grade cellular changes involving the full thickness of the epithelium (CIN III, which is biologically equivalent to carcinoma in situ). LSIL has a very slow rate of progression and a high rate of spontaneous regression. When considered together, however, as many as 66% of all stages of SIL are estimated to progress to cancer within 10 years.

Interestingly, a full 2% of women with Pap smear reports of benign cellular changes actually have HSIL at the time of the evaluation, illustrating the need for improvement in screening techniques and treatment of any premalignant lesions.

While numerous contributing factors have been established, the exact aetiology of CIN (as it is still commonly called) is unknown. There is epidemiologic evidence of a correlation between precancerous and cancerous changes in the cervical epithelium and human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV DNA is found in 80% to 100% of squamous cancers of the cervix. However, HPV takes decades to progress to cancer, and only a small percentage of those with HPV ever develop an invasive cancer.

In addition, studies on mice suggest that HPV alone is not sufficient for carcinogenesis. It is likely that other factors known to correlate with dysplasia may work synergistically with HPV to initiate carcinogenic changes through a still unknown mechanism.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause cervical changes using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) involves fatigue that is persistent and sufficiently intense to reduce normal daily activities by at least 50% for a minimum of six months. Although not conclusive, CFS may be precipitated by infectious agents (for example, Borrelia burgdorferi, herpes viruses, Candida albicans, and other parasitic agents. CFS is highly possible to be a multifactorial pathologic problem with lifestyle, dietary and constitutional/psychological makeup as contributing factors.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind chronic fatigue syndrome using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Coeliac disease, Coeliac Sprue, Gluten-Sensitive

Coeliac disease, also known as coeliac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a permanent intestinal intolerance to gluten – a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.

In these patients, gluten in the small bowel is enzymatically altered by tissue transglutaminase, which causes the immune system to cross react with the small bowel lining, causing inflammatory modification of the digestive barrier, characteristically flattening intestinal villi, alternating mucosal crypts, and recruiting immune cells (lymphocytes). This alteration to gut epitheleal architecture interferes with the absorption of dietary nutrients.

Coeliacs malabsorption is also associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose intolerance, contributing to symptoms of fatigue and abdominal bloating and pain. Also, fat malabsorption causes the characteristic steatorrhoea of coeliacs disease, with foul, clay-coloured floating stools, often with diarrhoea.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating Coeliac and gluten sensitivity using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cognitive decline

Cognitive decline is generally associated with aging, including signs such as forgetfulness and memory impairment. The term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is intended to represent an intermediate stage between normal aging and the development of pathologic aging and dementia (e.g. malignant senescent forgetfulness).

Mild degrees of cognitive impairment may occur with a mild or transient condition, such as, a drug-induced adverse effect, a depressive disorder, early stages of a condition that will eventually lead to a dementia, or may be due to a psychological condition rather than an organic brain disorder. some deficiency states such as B12 deficiency can also lead to cognitive decline and poor short term memory loss. Because a variety of conditions may result in a complaint of cognitive impairment, an individualized workup for such conditions and a consensus on a therapeutic approach should be sought.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind cognitive decline using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cold & flu support

The common cold and influenza are upper respiratory tract infections. Influenza is specifically caused by the influenza virus, while the common cold generally is not. While some of the symptoms of the common cold and influenza may be similar, patients with the common cold typically have a milder illness. Patients with influenza are usually sicker and have a more abrupt onset of illness with fever, chills, headache, body aches, dry cough, and extreme weakness.

The common cold is highly contagious and is caused by many different types of viruses. As we require exposure to viruses to gain immunity to them, and that cold viruses are constantly mutating, colds are a frequent and recurring problem. Pre-school children average 12 colds per year, while adolescents and adults have around seven colds per year, which is more than you should have if healthy.

Influenza is caused by viruses which are divided into three types, called A, B, and C. Most people who get the flu recover completely in 1 to 2 weeks, but some people develop serious and potentially life-threatening medical complications, such as pneumonia. Patients are advised to seek further assistance if symptoms do not resolve or worsen after 7 days.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating cold and flu viruses using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Colic

Colic is a state of excessive crying due to pains in their little tummies usually seen in infants typically during the late afternoon or early evening. From 15% to 20% of infants develop colic, and it seems to be more common in firstborns and in boys than in later-born infants and in girls. Colic is seen in otherwise healthy infants and can begin as early as 2 weeks of age. It is self-limited, only rarely lasting until the infant is 6 months old. commonly it is due to food intolerances either via the mothers milk or via baby feeding formulas. stress can play a role here too and this is why it is more common in first born due to the parents being less confident with their roles as new parents.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind colic using detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through this discomfort and to help relive symptoms.

Colon/Bowel Cancer support

Bowel cancer is currently the second largest cause of cancer deaths. Risk factors include age, a diet rich in fat and cholesterol, inflammatory bowel disease and genetic predisposition, including polyps.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause colon/bowel cancer using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body.

 

Constipation

Constipation is a condition in which a person has difficult or infrequent passage of faeces. Constipation may be a symptom of underlying pathology or an ongoing problem in itself, lasting days, months, or years. Normal bowel movements occur from two to three times a day to three times per week. Constipation may occur at any age, and most people will experience constipation sometime in life, but it is more frequent in infancy and old age.

Most cases of constipation result from changes in diet or physical inactivity and inadequate fluid intake. Psychological factors, particularly depression, may affect bowel motility and cause constipation. Chronic abuse of laxatives or cathartics can also lead to chronic constipation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind constipation using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Cradle Cap

Cradle cap is a patchy, greasy, scaly and crusty skin rash that occurs on the scalp of recently born babies. Cradle cap is infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis that is confined to the scalp. Infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis may also affect other areas of the body such as behind the ears, in the creases of the neck, armpits and the nappy area.

The cause of cradle cap is not clearly defined but it is not caused by infection, allergy or poor hygiene. Possibly it has to do with overactive sebaceous glands in the skin of newborn babies, due to the mother’s hormones still in the baby’s circulation. The glands release a greasy substance that makes old skin cells attach to the scalp as they try to dry and fall off. There may be a relationship with skin yeasts (malassezia).

Cradle cap is a very common condition that usually appears within the first 6 weeks of life. In some cases the condition will slowly resolve itself over a few weeks while in others it may continue for 6 to 9 months, and sometimes much longer. A different form of dermatitis, atopic dermatitis (infantile eczema), often develops as the cradle cap is improving. Atopic dermatitis generally continues for several years and is very itchy.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating these skin disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Dental Amalgam removal support

Dental amalgam is typically comprised of 50% mercury, 35% silver, 15% tin & other metals. There is considerable controversy over whether dental amalgam is harmful or harmless to health.

The range of ailments that have been linked (directly or indirectly) to low-level mercury poisoning include ME/CFS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), Alzheimer’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and a whole range of autoimmune illnesses. Some countries, like Sweden, Canada and Germany, have either banned or imposed serious limitations on amalgam usage.

Little argument exists, however, in the case of the removal of amalgam, where certain dental practices and supportive nutrients can significantly reduce the exposure to mercury during the process. Studies show that if amalgam fillings are removed by standard practices, there can be a 300-400% increase in plasma mercury. Using correct procedures, this can be reduced to minimal levels.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when supporting the removal of amalgam fillings using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body through its process of self-regeneration and detoxification of mercury and silver and any other toxins involved.

Depression support

The causes of depression may be multifactorial, including psychodynamic influences (such as chronic stress, especially early childhood loss or deprivation), biologic factors (such as alteration of neurotransmitters including serotonin, acetylcholine, and catecholamines), and genetic predisposition (including a recently identified gene called SERT that regulates serotonin, has been linked to depression). Other aspects contributing to this mood disorder include amount of light exposure, sleep disturbances, degree of social isolation, and nutritional deficiencies, notably folate and omega-3 fatty acids.

Many depressed patients report a precipitating stressful life event preceding their symptoms, which may occur immediately or delayed following a trauma such as loss of a loved one, abuse, or a natural disaster. Depression can also be precipitated by other medical conditions (such as myocardial infarction or cancer), as well as certain medications.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating depression using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration. see also pyrrole disorder.

Dermatitis- contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory response of the skin to an external allergen (contact allergic dermatitis) or irritant (irritant contact or primary irritant dermatitis).

Primary irritant dermatitis results from direct injury to the skin. It affects individuals exposed to specific irritants and generally produces discomfort immediately following exposure. Contact allergic dermatitis is an allergic reaction, usually to a protein, in a substance contacting the skin, to which there has been prior sensitisation. The occurrence of a reaction due to the interaction of either of these mechanisms and sun exposure is known as photodermatitis (photo-allergic or photo-irritant contact dermatitis). There are often other underlying causes for dermatitis that need to be looked at.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind dermatitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Detoxification

Toxins are substances that can interfere with the normal processes of the body through interference with enzymes, blockages of cellular transport mechanisms, oxidative damage, blockage of receptor sites, mimicking of hormones or neurotransmitters and/or blockage of nutrient absorption.

A major source of toxicity for most people is their digestive system. Foods, if not digested correctly, can become fuel for the growth of dysbiotic organisms. These organisms produce toxic chemicals, and when they die, fragments of their cell membranes can be absorbed into the blood stream and trigger an inflammatory response.

Our bodies have several mechanisms to protect against toxins, but these defence mechanisms may become impaired, often as a result of being overloaded by toxic material. In these situations, an Integrated Detoxification Program is recommended.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when supporting detoxification by using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Diabetes Support

Diabetes can be classified as type 1, type 2 or Gestation diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells, possibly triggered by a viral infection (e.g., Coxsackie virus or other enteric virus) or by toxic exposure in a genetically susceptible individual. The progressive destruction takes place, in part, from T cell release of cytokines, which attack the beta cells. By the time a patient with type 1 diabetes presents with symptoms, the pancreatic beta cells are 80% to 90% destroyed.

Insulin is essential to metabolise carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by allowing glucose to enter muscle cells and by stimulating the conversion of glucose to glycogen as a carbohydrate store (glycogenesis). Insulin also inhibits the release of stored glucose from liver glycogen (glycogenolysis) and slows the breakdown of fat to triglycerides, free fatty acids, and ketones. It also stimulates fat storage. Additionally, insulin inhibits the breakdown of protein and fat for glucose production (gluconeogenesis) in both liver and kidneys. Therefore you can see that high levels of insulin are not healthy and neither is low levels.

Hyperglycaemia (i.e.,random blood glucose concentration more than 11 mmol/L) results when insulin deficiency leads to uninhibited gluconeogenesis and prevents the use and storage of circulating glucose. The kidneys cannot reabsorb the excess glucose load, causing glycosuria, osmotic diuresis, thirst, and dehydration. Increased fat and protein breakdown leads to ketone production and weight loss. Without insulin, a child with IDDM wastes away and eventually dies from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Type 2 Diabetes
Once called adult-onset diabetes, Type 2 diabetes mellitus typically affects individuals older than 40 years. Now, because the epidemic of obesity and inactivity in children, type 2 diabetes is occurring at younger and younger ages: it has been diagnosed in children as young as 2 years of age who have a family history of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is characterised by peripheral insulin resistance with an insulin-secretory defect that varies in severity. For type 2 diabetes to develop, both defects must exist: All overweight individuals have insulin resistance, but only those with an inability to increase beta-cell production of insulin develop diabetes. In the progression from normal glucose tolerance to abnormal glucose tolerance, postprandial glucose levels first increase. Eventually, hepatic gluconeogenesis increases, resulting in fasting hyperglycaemia.

About 90% of patients who develop type 2 diabetes are obese. Because patients with type 2 diabetes retain the ability to secrete some endogenous insulin, those who are taking insulin do not develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) if they stop taking it for some reason. Therefore, they are considered to require insulin but not to depend on insulin. Moreover, patients with type 2 diabetes often do not need treatment with oral antidiabetic medication or insulin if they lose weight.

Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance detected during pregnancy.

Untreated GDM and uncontrolled maternal high blood glucose is a major risk to the developing baby, leading to foetal macrosomia (a larger baby than normal) increasing birth trauma or the need for caesarean section, neonatal hypoglycaemia, CNS defects, organ enlargement, organ displacement, cardiac or renal anomalies, asphyxia, respiratory distress, increased blood volume, congestive heart failure calcium and magnesium deficiency, hyperbilirubinaemia (jaundice) or the child may be stillborn. In addition, mothers with GDM have increased risk of GDM in subsequent pregnancies, and an overall increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It is estimated that abnormal maternal glucose regulation occurs in 3-10% of pregnancies, with risk factors associated with more sedentary lifestyles, high carbohydrate diets, genetic predisposition and obesity. Normalising glucose levels in women with gestational diabetes reduces the risk of complications. If diet modification fails to improve glucose values, insulin therapy is indicated. Oral hypoglycaemic agents are contraindicated during pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancies can be affected, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy is increased.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating supporting diabetes of any type using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body.

Diarrhoea support

Diarrhoea is the frequent passage of loose, watery stools, generally the result of increased motility in the colon. The stool may contain mucous, pus, blood or excessive amounts of fat and may be accompanied by fever, chills and malaise. Complications can be serious, even fatal, particularly in infants and elderly patients.

Diarrhoea is a symptom of an underlying condition, and acute diarrhoea is usually self-limiting (two to three days). Chronic diarrhoea (2-3 weeks or more in duration), however, requires appropriate assessment and management. It is important in these cases to attempt to determine the cause(s). Causes may include one or more of the following:

• Microbial infection
• Recent antibiotic use
• Nervous anxiety and/or other emotional disturbances
• Irritable Bowel Syndrome
• Inflammatory Bowel Disorders (e.g., Coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis)
• Teething (in children)
• Food allergies and/or sensitivities
• AIDS and other immune disorders
• Hyperthyroidism
• Laxative abuse
• Excessive intake of vitamin C supplements
• Excessive intake of magnesium supplements
• Bowel tumours
• Iatrogenic causes
• Poisoning

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind diarrhoea using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Digestive support

Digestive upsets can be associated with a range of imbalances, including one or more of the following:

Hypochlorhydria: lowered levels of hydrochloric acid which impairs macronutrient digestion and reduces absorption of many micronutrients – particularly vitamin B12. Further, lowered hydrochloric acid levels increase susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection and can thus contribute to ulcers in the stomach.

Pancreatic insufficiency: insufficient production of pancreatic protease, amylase, and lipase can contribute to digestive upsets due to food maldigestion and subsequent food putrefaction in the intestines. Pancreatic secretions are also responsible for keeping the small intestine free of parasites, therefore pancreatic insufficiency predisposes a patient to gastrointestinal infection.

Bowel and/or liver toxicity: dysbiosis and poor liver function can contribute to digestive upsets and general feelings of fatigue and malaise due to poor fat digestion, impaired metabolism of macro and micro nutrients by the liver, reduced waste elimination and recirculation of waste products (autointoxication).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind digestive upsets using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Diverticulitis

Diverticular disease is characterised by the development of diverticulae (sac-like protrusions) in the wall of the bowel. Diverticular disease occurs most commonly in the sigmoid colon (95-98%); however, diverticular disease can involve the descending, ascending, and transverse colon as well as the jejunum, ileum, and duodenum.

Diverticula are herniations of the mucosa and submucosa or the entire wall thickness through the muscularis (muscular layer of the bowel) . High intraluminal pressure and a weak colonic wall may contribute to herniation, as may abnormal colonic motility, defective muscular structure, and defects in collagen consistency and ageing.

Diverticulitis is the inflammation of one or multiple diverticulae, and may involve abscess formation from faecal material penetrating and blocking the neck of the diverticulum leading to bacterial replication. The infection may progress, fistulise or perforate, obstruct, or spontaneously resolve. With repeated inflammation the lumen of the colon narrows and may become constricted.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind diverticular disease using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Dyslipidaemia | Cholesterol Imbalance

Dyslipidaemia refers to abnormal blood lipid (fat) levels. Blood lipids include triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. When levels of these fats are abnormal or disturbed patients are at risk of atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke and a number of other disorders. The most common types of dyslipidaemia patients can present with (either alone or in combination) are:

High LDL: low-density lipoproteins (LDL’s) transport cholesterol and triglycerides away from cells and tissues that produce cholesterol (e.g., liver), towards cells and tissues which are taking up cholesterol and triglycerides (e.g., peripheral tissues, muscles, nerves, etc). When too much LDL cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up on the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. Together with other substances LDL can form plaques, thick, hard deposits that can clog those arteries. This is why cholesterol inside LDL lipoproteins is called bad cholesterol. The risk of having a heart attack or stroke rises directly as a person’s LDL cholesterol level increases.

Low HDL: high-density lipoproteins (HDL’s) carry cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where it’s excreted via the hepatobiliary excretion route. HDL also removes excess cholesterol from plaques in arteries, thus slowing the progress of cardiovascular disease. This is why HDL cholesterol is known as the “good” cholesterol. Low HDL cholesterol levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.

High triglycerides: triglycerides are fats that contain a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acids. These fats come from foods and are also made endogenously by the liver. The fat stored in the body is predominantly made from triglycerides. LDL carries triglycerides from the liver into the peripheral tissues and deposits it there; HDL carries it from the peripheries back to the liver for excretion. For this reason, hypertriglyceridaemia is commonly associated with high LDL and low HDL levels. High blood triglyceride levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind dyslipidaemia/cholesterol issues using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Eczema | Dermatitis

Eczema (or dermatitis) refers to a group of chronic skin disorders involving inflammation of the skin and is often seen in individuals with a family history of allergic rhinitis, asthma or atopic dermatitis.

Contact eczema: localized rash where offending agent touched skin; caused by allergens, irritants, light, chemicals, perfumes, metals.

Atopic eczema: this Type I allergic reaction is associated with the IgE antibody production and is most common in patients with a history of other allergic conditions (e.g., asthma, hay fever).

Seborrheic eczema: this chronic skin condition is associated with excessive seborrhoea production and greasy scales on the scalp, eyelids and/or other parts of the skin on face.

Nummular eczema: chronic skin condition characterised by round red spots that crust and scale; accompanies dry skin in winter; often associated with emotional stress; usually found in people over the age of 35.

Stasis eczema: this form of eczema develops over the lower legs and is associated with poor venous return (e.g. varicose veins). The skin turns brown and flakes and itches.

Neurodermatitis: this term is used to describe eczematoid rashes that seem to have a major stress-related component.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind eczema and dermatitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Emphysema | Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Support

Emphysema is an ailment of the lungs characterized by cross-linking, over-distention and destruction of the lungs’ alveoli. It is caused by long-term damage to the alveoli with reduced elasticity of the lungs due to free radical exposure.

Emphysema patients suffer from increasingly impaired breathing ability (a feeling of being out of breath during routine physical activity) and frequent coughing. Most emphysema patients have already lost 50% to 70% of their functional lung tissue before they become aware that they have emphysema.

Emphysema frequently co-exists with chronic bronchitis and is described as a form of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This chronic pulmonary disease is often characterized by absence of _-1 antitrypsin – the serum protein that inhibits the activity of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes. This leads to increased trypsin activity in the lungs which degrades alveolar walls and causes loss of elastic recoil in the lung.

This disorder most commonly affects smokers due to the free radicals from the smoke inhibiting antitrypsin production.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind emphysema and COPD using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body.

Endometriosis

In endometriosis, the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is normally confined to that organ, is situated ectopically, where it may grow and even menstruate. Cyclic bleeding of ectopic endometrial tissue produces lesions which although usually within the pelvic cavity, have been found in every extrapelvic organ system except the spleen – including lungs, CNS, kidneys, GI tract, rectum, bladder, vagina, cervix, vulva, thigh and arm.

Most frequently involved sites are ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the external surfaces of the bladder and uterus. Fibrosis and adhesions within the area may result, and may enshroud the ovaries in such a way that an ovum cannot be released: endometriosis is one of the most common causes of female infertility.

Endometriosis is usually associated with chronic or acute pelvic pain which may radiate to the buttocks and perianal region, although it develops gradually and is often asymptomatic for years. The condition is under-diagnosed and is often mistaken for dysmenorrhoea.

While aetiology remains uncertain, retrograde menstruation, oestrogen dominance, genetic predisposition, and immune system dysregulation are widely accepted theories. Because ectopic endometrial implants respond to exogenous and endogenous hormones, medical treatment aims at suppressing oestrogen production to bring about amenorrhoea, which halts retrograde menstruation and causes atrophy of implants.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind endometriosis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Fatigue

Fatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness and/or lack of energy. It is a symptom, rather than a specific disease or disorder. People who are fatigued feel tired in both body and mind and commonly have slowed reflexes and reduced function in daily life. Estimates vary, but it is thought that up to 60% of patients visiting their primary health care professional complain of fatigue. Fatigue is more common in women than men: women are affected almost twice as often as men.

Fatigue can be categorised as either:

• Simple fatigue: involves temporary decline in energy levels of duration < 6 months that is not severe enough to significantly impact on the patient’s normal daily activities.

• Chronic fatigue: involves fatigue that is sufficiently intense and persistent to significantly affect normal daily activities for a period of 6 months or more.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fatigue using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Fatty Liver

Fatty liver is just what its name suggests: the build-up of excess fat in the liver cells. Normal healthy liver tissue is partially replaced with areas of unhealthy fats. In such a liver, the liver cells and the spaces in the liver are filled with fat so the liver becomes slightly enlarged and heavier. The liver also has a yellow greasy appearance.

It is normal for the liver to contain some fat, but if fat accounts for more than 10% of the liver’s weight, then liver function may be impaired and serious complications may develop.

Fatty liver may cause inflammation of the liver (steatohepatitis), scarring and hardening of the liver, and eventually, liver cirrhosis and liver failure. In developed countries, the incidence of fatty liver is 15-20% of the general population (much higher in obese individuals). Fatty liver is the most common cause of abnormal liver function tests in adults and children.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fatty liver using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Fibrocystic Breasts

Fibrocystic breast disease is described as common, benign (non-cancerous) condition characterised by round lumps that move freely within the breast tissue. These lumps are usually tender to the touch: in contrast, a cancerous growth in the breast is often not tender or freely movable when touched. The texture of the lumps can vary from soft to firm.

The incidence of fibrocystic disease is estimated to be over 60% of all women. It is common in women between the ages of 30 and 50, and rare in postmenopausal women.

For many women, tenderness may increase as menstruation approaches. Often the cysts fill with fluid and can enlarge pre-menstrually in response to the increase in hormonal levels during this time. Usually the symptoms of pain and swelling do not persist once menstruation begins, and most women notice significant relief at this time.

These changes are believed to be associated with ovarian hormones since the condition usually subsides with menopause, and may vary in consistency during the menstrual cycle. The main hormones implicated in the worsening of breast symptoms pre-menstrually include oestrogen and prolactin. Often these lumps can be due to hormones not being on the correct pathways…

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fibrocystic breasts using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a term that refers to a group of common, non-articular rheumatic disorders affecting areas of tendon insertions and adjacent soft tissue structures. The muscle pain, tenderness and stiffness characteristic of this disorder are regarded as non-inflammatory, and are frequently associated with anxiety and sleeplessness. Essentially, fibromyalgia is characterised by three cardinal symptoms:

1. Widespread musculoskeletal pain that persists for at least three months with no evidence of inflammation or muscle abnormalities
2. Disordered sleep patterns, especially stage 4 non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
3. Multiple tender points over the body. A tender point is defined as pain when approximately 4 kg of pressure is applied.

Fibromyalgia is caused by progressive deterioration of hypothalamic CRF neurons due to previous overactivity induced by neurotransmitter imbalance and cytokine activation. It is associated with progressive hypofunction of the SNS/adrenal axis producing an array of vascular and skeletal muscular dysfunctions characterised by fatigue and pain.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fibromyalgia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Flatulence

Flatulence refers to the formation of copious and possibly foul smelling flatus. Flatulence occurs when a food does not break down completely in the stomach and small intestine. As a result, the food passes into the large intestine in an undigested state where bacteria digest the foods and produce a variety of gases. Gases such as methane, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide are commonly produced. Certain foods produce more flatulence than others because they contain more indigestible carbohydrates.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind flatulence using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Fructose Intolerance

Fructose intolerance is due to an enzyme (aldose B) deficiency that causes toxic symptoms when fructose is ingested. Although fructose is found in fruit, it also naturally occurs in the body, and man-made forms of fructose are frequently used as a sweetener in many foods, including many baby foods and drinks.

For those that have fructose intolerance, if fructose and/or sucrose (a disaccharide of fructose and glucose) is consumed, the body is suddenly unable to convert glycogen into glucose, causing blood sugar fall sharply and toxins to accumulate in the liver. This characteristically leads to chronic fatigue, digestive issues, hypoglycaemia and, more seriously and rarely, liver failure.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating fructose malabsorption using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Gallstones | Cholelithiasis

Cholelithiasis is the formation of gallstones in the biliary tract. It affects about 10% of the population in developed countries. Gallstones consist of bile pigments, calcium and/or cholesterol and form due to fat-soluble endogenous waste, fat-soluble toxins and/or bile stagnating in the gallbladder. The stagnant ‘sludge’ accumulates and solids may precipitate out of solution and coalesce into gravel and/or stones.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind gall stones using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Gastritis

Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa (stomach lining)with causes including bacterial, fungal, parasitic or viral infection of the stomach. Gastric irritation may occur due to medications, backflow of bile into the stomach, alcohol, chronic vomiting, excessive gastric acid secretion, ingested poisons. Trauma to the stomach may occur due to nasogastric tube suction, retching, radiation, chemotherapy, surgery. Other underlying drivers of gastric ulceration and/or inflammation include autoimmunity, anxiety and/or stress and environmental irritants, such as cigarette smoking.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind gastritis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Glandular Fever | Epstein-Barr Virus | EBV | Mononucleosis

Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV or mononucleosis, is a member of the herpes virus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and up to 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected with EBV.

Mononucleosis is characterised by swollen glands, fever, and commonly spleen enlargement, and profound fatigue that may continue for months and even years for some.

Once infected, the virus persists in the body for life. It can reactivate quietly without causing symptoms and may contaminate saliva. Thus, otherwise healthy people can spread the virus to uninfected people through kissing or sharing food. Hence, mononucleosis is sometimes known as the “kissing disease.” EBV may play a role in the development of certain lymphomas and nasopharyngeal cancer.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating EBV using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Gout

In gout, monosodium urate crystals are deposited in tissue, causing inflammation and severe pain of relatively rapid onset, usually in a single joint. Once called “the rich man’s disease” because of its association with overindulgence in food and alcohol, this metabolic disorder can be exacerbated by poor diet. Primary gout is the result of overproduction or under excretion of uric acid. Secondary gout is the result of myeloproliferative diseases, lead poisoning, enzyme deficiencies, or renal failure. Left untreated, gout may lead to a chronic arthritis.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind gout using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is an inherited disorder that causes the body to absorb and store too much iron. This extra iron builds up in organs (especially the liver, heart, and pancreas) and damages them. The chronic iron overload results in excessive free radical generation, especially in the liver as it is the primary iron storage organ, typically resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma in severe untreated cases.

Haemochromatosis is mainly associated with a defect in a gene called HFE, which helps regulate the amount of iron absorbed from food. The genetic defect of haemochromatosis is present at birth, but symptoms rarely appear before adulthood. A person who inherits the defective gene from both parents is highly likely to develop haemochromatosis, while a person who inherits the defective gene from only one parent is a carrier for the disease and usually only experience slight increases in iron absorption. Occasionally haemochromatosis may be due, not to genetics, but to liver damage from excess alcohol, poisoning and toxins (e.g., pesticides) or viral infection.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind haemochromatosis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hair Loss | Alopecia

Alopecia is the absence or thinning of hair in an area of the body where hair formerly grew. It may be caused by physical damage to the hair itself or to the hair follicles, but is most often the result of changes in the natural hair growth cycle.

Commonly the growth cycle is disrupted by some temporary situation such as a chemical imbalance or stress; often the problem may be resolved when the precipitating condition is alleviated. However, 95% of cases of hair loss in both men (male pattern baldness) and women (female diffuse baldness) are genetic in origin. This is called androgenetic alopecia.

Androgenetic alopecia is caused by a genetic predisposition for certain hair follicles to produce the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, which combines with the testosterone in the follicle and transforms it into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT accumulation eventually shuts down the follicle. In the interim, the hairs produced by the follicle gradually become shorter and finer. Female diffuse baldness progresses more slowly than male pattern baldness because of the small amount of testosterone in a woman’s body. Androgenetic alopecia may be exacerbated by a hormonal imbalance.

Despite many years of research, there is currently no effective means of regrowing hair from dead follicles at advanced stages of baldness. The sooner treatment is applied the better the results

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hair loss and alopecia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hashimotos Thyroiditis | Hypothyroidism

Thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an autoimmune form of thyroiditis, when lymphocytes gradually destroy thyroid tissue. In the early inflammatory stages of the disorder patients may present with hyperthyroidism, but as the disease progresses, the damaged thyroid tissue is unable to produce sufficient thyroid hormone and hypothyroidism develops. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is the most common cause of clinical hypothyroidism in Australia.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind thyroid disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hay Fever – Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is an IgE-mediated immune reaction to airborne allergens. It affects between 10-16% of people, with 70% of cases occurring before age 30. Symptoms resemble those of viral rhinitis but persist and show seasonal variation.

This most common form of allergy involves the entire respiratory system – nasal cavity, mouth, throat, bronchi and lungs – and the eyes, and is a serious trigger for asthmatic patients. There is an inherited tendency, with a child having a 50% chance of developing such allergy if one parent is allergic, and a 75% chance if both parents are allergic.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hayfever using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Headaches

Headache is a term used to describe aching or pain that occurs in one or more areas of the head, face, mouth, or neck. Headache can be chronic, recurrent, or occasional. The pain can be mild or severe enough to disrupt daily activities. Headaches are a characteristic symptom of many conditions and management requires accurate determination of the aetiology.

Types of headaches include:

Cluster headaches: headache pain that occurs periodically and in clusters. The pain is characterised by several intense paroxysmal throbbing headaches, lasting approximately one hour, which may then remit for weeks or months before the next cluster of attacks. The pain is usually one-sided, involving the eye, temple, neck and face. The eyes and nose may run and the skin over the throbbing area may become red.

Eyestrain headaches: headache occurs due to over use of eyes and/or improper lighting and visual impairment. Pain is commonly frontal or supraorbital and is frequently worse after use of eyes.

Exertional headaches: these headaches are brought on by running, lifting, coughing, sneezing, or bending. They begin at the onset of activity and generally cease shortly after – the pain rarely lasts for more than several minutes. Acute increases in intra-cranial pressure are thought to be the main cause.

Hormonal headaches: many female sufferers of headaches notice an increase in headaches attacks at the time of menstruation. Menstrual or hormonal headaches occur at the point in the menstrual cycle when levels of both oestrogen and progesterone decline – it is believed that falling oestrogen levels and/or low oestrogen:progesterone ratios precipitate these headaches.

Metabolic headaches: headaches associated with metabolic disorders and derangement of metabolism. Common metabolic triggers include hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothyroidism and hypoglycaemia.

Sinus headaches: headache caused by sinus congestion and/or infection that results in dull, deep, or severe pain in the front of the head, localised over the affected sinus. Found in patients with a previous history of upper respiratory infection with residual nasal congestion and discharge. Symptoms worsen in cold, damp conditions. Pain is greater in the morning and decreased by afternoon. Bending or leaning over worsens headache.

Trauma headaches: this form of chronic headache pain occurs following surgery, car accidents, or any other physical trauma (including brain tumours). The headache may be localised to the site of injury or it may be generalised, variable by intensity, frequency or duration. Generally these headaches are made worse by emotional disturbances and change of position.

Tension headaches: most common form of headache. These headaches are intermittent, moderate and are accompanied by a concomitant feeling of tenderness, tightness or stiffness in muscles of the back, neck, jaw and/or shoulders. Commonly felt in the temples and/or fronto-occipitally. Duration ranges from 30 minutes to several days.

Toxic headaches: these are headaches associated with toxic states (e.g., heavy metal toxicity, auto-intoxication due to Leaky Gut Syndrome, high endotoxin load due to a sluggish liver function, etc). Pain tends to be moderate, generalised and pulsating but constant. Toxic headaches are also often produced by a fever that comes with conditions such as pneumonia, measles, mumps and tonsillitis.

Vascular headaches: these headaches are thought to involve abnormal function of the brain’s blood vessels or vascular system. The most common type of vascular headache are migraines. These headaches are commonly preceded by an aura (flashing lights or zigzag lines, or temporary loss of vision) 10 to 30 minutes before an attack and are generally unilateral and extremely painful.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind headaches and migrains using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Heart Disease Support

Cardiovascular disease is the largest killer in western countries, and is largely diet and
lifestyle driven. Interventions with natural medicines, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications can make a significant difference to a patients risk of cardiovascular disease.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating heart disease and other cardiovascular problems using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the mucus membrane lining of the human stomach. Whilst H.pylori infection is very common, many patients experience no symptoms. However, certain strains of H.pylori are virulent, and infection is strongly associated with gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers and acne rosacea.

It appears that H. pylori itself does not cause ulceration, but if the gastric mucosal barrier becomes compromised, as a result of weakened stomach acid, stress, smoking, alcohol or by other dietary and lifestyle triggers, the stomach lining may become more susceptible to damage from H. pylori infection, by burrowing into the gastric lining.

H.pylori infection is also associated with higher cardiovascular risk and acne rosacea. Gastric infection induces the production of serum or tissue levels of the free radical nitrous oxide (NO), which in turn instigates vasodilation, inflammation and immune modulation.

H. pylori infection is most likely contracted via the oral-fecal route, especially via contaminated food and water. In addition, H. pylori may be transmitted from the stomach to the mouth through gastro-oesophageal reflux and then transmitted through oral contact.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating Helicobacter Pylori using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Haemorrhoids

Haemorrhoids refer to veins that are swollen and twisted and can be classified as either internal or external to the anal canal. They can be categorised as:

• First degree: bulging into anal canal and causing bleeding.
• Second degree: prolapsing during defaecation and reducing spontaneously.
• Third degree: prolapsing and requiring manual reduction.
• Fourth degree: thrombosed, prolapsing and/or may be strangulated.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating haemorrhoids using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hepatitis support

Hepatitis is liver inflammation. The term refers to a broad range of conditions that can be caused by one or more of the following:

• Viral infection (the most common)
• Toxic damage to the liver.
• Immune-mediated damage to the liver.

Although many cases of hepatitis are not a serious health threat, the disease can become chronic and sometimes lead to liver failure and death. The disease may be of limited duration (i.e., acute; 6 months’ duration). The hepatitis viruses are the most common causes of both acute and chronic hepatitis.

Virus types include:

• Hepatitis A: enterovirus transmitted by the orofaecal route, transmitted to humans through methods such as contaminated food. It causes an acute form of hepatitis and does not have a chronic stage.

• Hepatitis B: causes both acute and chronic hepatitis. Identified methods of transmission include blood transfusion, tattoos, sexually or through contact with blood or bodily fluids, or from mother to her unborn child.

• Hepatitis C: transmitted through contact with blood (including through sexual contact) and leads to a chronic form of hepatitis, often culminating in cirrhosis. It can remain asymptomatic for 10-20 years but can be a very lethal virus.

• Hepatitis D: virus-like substance that cannot proliferate without the presence of hepatitis B virus and so is only present in patients with existing Hepatitis B infection.

• Hepatitis E: produces symptoms similar to hepatitis A.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating hepatitis support using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hiatus Hernia

A hiatus hernia is a protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. This protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm often results in incompetence of the cardiac sphincter and reflux oesophagitis.

There are three types of hiatus hernias:

• Sliding Hiatus Hernia: most common type of hiatus hernia. Herniated portion of the stomach slides back and forth, into and out of the chest. These hernias are normally small and usually cause no problems or even symptoms.

• Fixed Hiatus Hernia: upper part of the stomach is caught up in the chest. Causes more symptoms than a sliding hiatus hernia.

• Complicated Hiatus Hernia: rare form of hernia where the entire stomach moves up in the chest. There is a high likelihood that medical problems will occur with this hernia and that treatment, frequently involving surgery, will be required.

Hiatus hernia can lead to acid reflux. Unlike the stomach, the lining of the oesophagus is not designed to withstand acid, so reflux of the acidic contents can damage the lower end of the oesophagus. This can lead to the formation of ulcers that can bleed. Bleeding ulcers can also lead to anaemia. Further, as these ulcers heal they can result in a narrowing of the oesophagus, which can cause difficult, painful swallowing and regurgitation of food. There is also an increased risk of developing Barrett’s oesophagus, a condition where the cells lining the oesophagus undergo changes and become pre-malignant.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hiatus hernias using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hyperadrenalism

Hyperadrenal states are seen in those who are experiencing prolonged stress and are in a state of acute sensitisation of the HPA axis. This increased HPA sensitivity to perceived stressors results in excessive sympatho-adrenal responses causing elevated levels of catecholamines in the short term. If the stress continues, elevated levels of corticosteroids are seen in the longer term.

Some stress enhances function (physical and/or mental) and may be considered good stress (i.e., eu-stress). However, if stress persists and is excessive, it may become ?bad (i.e., dis-stress) and lead either to adverse physiological, psychological and/or behavioural changes.

Medically, stress is recognised as a physical and/or psychological stimulus that can produce mental tension or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. By this definition one may appreciate that stress is a response which includes both physical and mental components. – Stress may even be derived from imagined experience (e.g., stress felt during a scary movie).

The stress response includes a host of physiological changes, most of which are mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is believed to play a primary role in the body’s reactions to stress, by balancing hormone releases from the adrenaline-producing adrenal medulla and from the corticosteroid-producing adrenal cortex.

In stressful situations, the body reacts acutely to stress first by releasing the catecholamine hormones, (adrenaline/epinephrine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine), and in chronic stress, by releasing glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and cortisone).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hyperadrenalism using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

 

 

Hypertension

Hypertension is defined as an average or sustained systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 140mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 90 mmHg. Persons with hypertension are four times more likely than normotensive individuals to experience a major cardiovascular event (e.g., myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure) and high blood pressure is believed to contribute to 75% of all strokes and heart attacks.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hypertension using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, resulting in acceleration of the body’s metabolic rate: hyperthyroidism causes the body’s cells to burn fuel so rapidly that they waste much of it in the form of heat. The ailment varies in severity. Most cases can be treated effectively with medication. Surgery may be necessary if conservative treatment fails. Left untreated, hyperthyroidism is potentially fatal.

The condition can take three different forms:

Graves’ Disease: appears as a goitre in the neck along with eye and skin changes. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition. It stems from an antibody that stimulates the thyroid to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. In the process, the antibody overwhelms the usual thyroid-stimulating hormone. The stimulation causes the thyroid to grow, creating a goitre.

Toxic Nodular Goitre: one or more nodules (benign tumours) in the thyroid produce an excess of thyroid hormone.

Secondary Hyperthyroidism: in this condition the pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid to overproduce thyroid hormones.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating hyperthyroidism using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hypoadrenalism

Hypoadrenal states are seen in patients who are experiencing extremely prolonged “bad” stress and are in a state of exhaustion of the HPA axis. This decreased HPA sensitivity results in reduced sympatho-adrenal responses causing reducing levels of corticosteroids and a progressive worsening of the patient?s ability to respond to stress. This stage of the stress response is associated with adrenal exhaustion or “burn out.”

Warning
Adrenal restoration without addressing the causes of the stress may merely enable the system to switch back into hyperadrenalism until it once again burns out. Such mismanagement can make you switch back and forth a number of times before the system finally collapses into chronic fatigue. This is often done by people using stimulants such as coffee, guarana, ginsengs and similar.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind Hypoadrenal states of fatigue or exhaustion using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia is a condition characterised by sudden drops in the concentration of glucose in circulating blood (i.e., low blood sugar). Hypoglycaemia is commonly caused by insulin resistance in the tissues resulting in compensatory overproduction of insulin culminating in delayed and excessive glucose clearance.

Normally, beta cells in the pancreas secrete the hormone insulin after meals in response to an increase in plasma glucose concentrations. Insulin, in turn, lowers plasma glucose concentrations by increasing the rate at which glucose is taken up by cells. A deficiency of plasma glucose (e.g., after exercise, during pregnancy) because of increased glucose utilisation causes the alpha cells of the pancreas to secrete the hormone glucagon.

Glucagon, in turn, stimulates the release of glucose that is stored in the liver as glycogen to make up for the deficit. These glucoregulatory mechanisms can become overworked by lifestyle factors such as stress, poor diet and/or disease, resulting in blood glucose level dysregulation (i.e., dysglycaemia and/or hypoglycaemia). A diet of carbs and sugars may be a simple answer to why someone has blood sugar dysregulation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hypoglycaemia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hypotension

Hypotension is a condition in which the blood pressure is below 100mmHg systolic and/or 50mmHg diastolic. It is commonly seen in hypovolaemia and as a result of various medications, and is often a symptom of another condition (see aetiology/risk factors below, and appropriate protocol).

Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension) is the most common form of hypotension. In this form of hypotension there is a fall in blood pressure of more than 20/10 mmHg when an individual moves from a laying down or bending down to a standing position. It is usually transient and represents a delay in the normal compensatory ability of the autonomic nervous system, or hypovolaemia due to blood loss, dehydration, vasodilation and certain medications but can also be linked with adrenal fatigue and specific low vitamin/mineral levels.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hypotension using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Hypothyroidism | Underactive Thyroid

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormone, when there is decreased conversion from T4 to T3, when there is an overproduction of reverse T3 (Wilson’s syndrome), or when the body is not efficiently using thyroid hormone.

A large proportion of the population suffers some degree of hypothyroidism; however, the majority of those cases go undiagnosed. Hypothyroidism can occur in either sex at any age, although middle-aged women are most commonly affected. The disease has a wide variety of symptoms, and they often reveal themselves slowly and subtly. Untreated, hypothyroidism can cause anaemia, a low body temperature, heart failure and, ultimately, a condition known as myxoedema coma. This type of coma, triggered by exposure to cold, infection, or drugs such as sedatives, is potentially fatal. It leads to a slowdown in breathing, seizures, and a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain.

Hypothyroidism can take several forms, including:

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: this is the most common type of hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune response in which antibodies in the blood destroy tissues in the thyroid gland. As a result, the thyroid decreases in size and reduces its production of thyroid hormones.

Post-therapeutic hypothyroidism: results from the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine or surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland. The treatment can leave the patient’s thyroid unable to produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone.

Goitrous hypothyroidism: results from an extreme shortage of iodine in the diet, producing a goitre in the neck. It is relatively rare in the Western world due to the introduction of iodised salt.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind hypothyroidism using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Infection – Fungal

Fungi are multicellular parasitic organisms that include moulds, rusts, mildews, mushrooms and yeasts. They thrive in warm, moist areas and fungal infections are contagious—able to be passed from one person to the next by direct skin-to-skin contact or by contact with contaminated items such as combs, unwashed clothing, and shower or pool surfaces.

Fungi can cause infections such as:

• Athlete’s foot
• Jock itch
• Diaper rash
• Thrush
• Candidiasis
• Onychomycosis
• Tinea capitis
• Tinea corporis (ringworm)
• Tinea versicolour

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fungal infections using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Infection – Parasitic

The most common parasites of man are protozoa and worms. Protozoa are single celled parasites that can infect humans and cause serious illnesses. Many protozoans reproduce extremely rapidly and can take over the intestinal tract of their host. Some protozoa produce cysts (i.e., enclosed sacs) in which they may be safely transported through food and water from one person to another. In the cyst state, protozoans are safe from destruction by human digestive juices and immunological attack. Common disease-causing protozoa include: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidum parvum, Blastocystis hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium muris, Pneumocystis carinii, Plasmodium spp., Leishmania spp.

Helminths (worms) are multicellular parasites that can infect human beings and cause disease. Unless the worm infestation is severe, many individuals do not show signs of disease. Humans can coexist quite comfortably with a few worms, unless they reproduce in great numbers and create organ obstruction. Common parasitic worms include roundworm, hookworm, pinworm and tapeworm.

Often there can be underlying causes of infestation such as low stomach acid levels, high sugar consumption or poor digestive health that seem to predispose someone to greater risk of infestation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating parasitic infections using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Infection – Viral

A virus is a microscopic particle that can infect living cells. At the most basic level, viruses consist of genetic material (RNA or DNA) contained within a protective protein shell called a capsid. Viruses are intracellular parasites that lack the means for self-reproduction outside a host cell.

Common types of viral infections include the following:

• Influenza virus (flu)
• Rhinovirus (common cold)
• Epstein-Barr virus (Glandular fever)
• Hepatitis virus
• Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
• Viral gastroenteritis
• Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
• Cold sores (Herpes virus)
• Varicella-Zoster virus (Chickenpox/Shingles)
• Rubella virus (German measles)
• Measles virus

Chronic viral infections can develop when the immune system fails to completely eradicate a virus and a latent, often sub-clinical infection is established. Chronic viral infections commonly seen in clinical practice include Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating viral infections using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Infertility – Female

Infertility in women is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse, and/or the inability to maintain a pregnancy. Conception and pregnancy are complicated processes that depend upon many factors, including:

• The production of healthy sperm by the man
• Healthy eggs produced by the woman
• Unblocked fallopian tubes that allow the sperm to reach the egg
• The sperm’s ability to fertilise the egg when they meet
• The ability of the fertilised egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman’s uterus
• The embryo must be healthy
• The woman’s hormonal environment must be adequate for foetal development.

When just one of these factors is impaired, infertility can result.

The most common female infertility factor is an ovulation disorder. Other causes of female infertility include blocked fallopian tubes, which can occur when a woman has had pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis. Congenital anomalies involving the structure of the uterus and uterine fibroids are associated with repeated miscarriages. Ageing is also an important factor in female infertility. The ability for ovaries to produce eggs declines with age, especially after age 35.

Primary infertility is infertility occurring in patients who have never conceived. Secondary infertility is infertility that occurs when a woman is unable to get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term after already having had a child.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind infertility using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body for optimal fertility.

Infertility – Male

Male infertility is any condition in which a man adversely affects the chances of initiating a pregnancy. Most commonly problems arise when the man is unable to produce or deliver fully-functioning sperm.

Problems with the production and development of sperm (spermatogenesis) are the most common problems of male fertility. Sperm may be underdeveloped, abnormally shaped or unable to move properly. Also, normal sperm may be produced in abnormally low numbers (oligospermia) or seemingly not at all (azoospermia).

The production of sperm is dependent on a delicate interplay between various aspects of the endocrine, reproductive and nervous systems. The hypothalamus releases GnRH which stimulates the production and release of both luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). LH and FSH both bind to specific receptors within the testis, stimulating testosterone production. Spermatogenesis requires sufficient testosterone, as well as adequate micronutrient levels and healthy testicular function. Prolactin also has a complex inter-relationship with LH and FSH. In males with hyperprolactinaemia, the prolactin tends to inhibit the production of GnRH, thus blunting the male HPG reproductive axis.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind male infertility using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Inflammatory Bowel Disorder IBD | Crohn’s Disease | Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammatory Bowel Disorders (IBD) are non-specific, chronic inflammatory diseases of the GIT. The most commonly affected parts are the distal ileum and colon, but inflammation may also affect any part of the GIT from the mouth to the anus. IBD may present at any age, but onset peaks between 15 and 40 years of age. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the most common inflammatory bowel disorders.

Crohn’s Disease is chronic inflammation involving all layers of the intestinal wall and any part of the gastrointestinal tract –although it most commonly affects the ileum and the caecum. It is characterised by patchy mucosal lesions containing ulcers, fissures, and granulomas. The disease often presents with a pattern of intermittent remittance and relapses. Nutritional deficiencies due to malabsorption are common and developmental retardation may result in those who develop this disorder during childhood.

Ulcerative Colitis is a chronic, nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease involving the mucosa and submucosa of the colon. It usually includes the rectum and is characterised by uniform and continuous ulceration, bloody diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Recurrent inflammation may eventually lead to shortening of the colon, and with long-standing UC, the surface epithelium may show dysplastic changes. Like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis often presents with a pattern of intermittent remittance and relapses.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind inflammatory bowel diseases using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Insomnia

Insomnia is defined as the persistent difficulty or the inability to fall and/or stay asleep. This condition may have no apparent cause, but is often a symptom of an underlying medical or psychological condition such as anxiety, depression, pain or hormonal imbalances. Other factors can be having stimulants such as coffee before bed/too late in the day, allergies, bloating and digestive discomfort, liver issues or simply a stressful day or worries.

There are two common types of insomnia:

• Delayed sleep onset (i.e., difficulty getting to sleep) – possibly associated with serotonin deficiency.

• Frequent awakenings and/or early morning arousal (i.e., difficulty staying asleep) – possibly associated with dopamine imbalances.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind insomnia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. There is decreased sensitivity of target cells (muscle, adipose and hepatic cells) to insulin.

Normally insulin is released from pancreatic beta cells after eating. The insulin signals the body to allow glucose to enter insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., muscles, adipose tissue) and maintain normal blood glucose levels. In an insulin resistant person the message does not get through, and more and more insulin is released in an attempt to compensate.

Occasionally, this can lead to a steep drop in blood sugar and a hypoglycaemic reaction several hours after the meal. As the disorder progresses, hyperglycaemia develops as pancreatic beta cells are unable to produce adequate insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. The inability of the beta cells to produce more insulin in the condition of hyperinsulinaemia is what characterises the transition from insulin resistance to Type 2 Diabetes.

Insulin resistance in fat cells results in hydrolysis of stored triglycerides, which elevates free fatty acids in the blood plasma. Insulin resistance in muscle reduces glucose uptake, whereas insulin resistance in liver reduces glucose storage, with both effects serving to elevate blood glucose. High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance often leads to Metabolic Syndrome, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind insulin resistance using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS| Spastic Colon

IBS symptoms result from abnormal motility, with peristaltic contractions becoming disorganised, harsh and/or spasmodic. The erratic propulsion that results can cause sudden, explosive elimination of stools, or can delay any elimination. Chronic stress or depression can trigger attacks. Eating in general can cause immediate need for a bowel movement. Specific foods such as high-fat meals, wheat, dairy products, and citrus fruits, as well as drinks containing caffeine or alcohol, can aggravate the condition.

IBS is usually described as either:
• IBS-D: diarrhoea-predominant
• IBS-C: constipation-predominant
• IBS-A: alternating stool pattern

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind irritable or spastic colon using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

IVF | ART | GIFT | ZIFT support

Natural medicines strategies to support IVF revolve around supporting healthy conception. The key difference in IVF preconception care is to avoid using nutrients and herbal medicines that may affect hormonal manipulation during their medication phase – often around 6-8 weeks, but supporting the mum to be with good diet ands lifestyle advise.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind poor fertility using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through the IVF process.

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Lichen Planus

Lichen (pronounced “liken”) planus is an uncommon skin and mucous membrane complaint. Whilst the cause is unknown, it is thought that stress, certain medications, fungal infections, viral infection, such as hepatitis C, or allergic reactions combined with genetic predisposition appear to trigger an inflammatory autoimmune response.

Characterised by white, flat papules that may become rough scaly patches, lichen planus may present with a few skin lesions, but rarely can affect large areas of the skin and mucous membranes, especially oral and vaginal mucosa. In 85% of cases it clears from skin surfaces within 18 months but it may persist longer (up to 4 years) especially when affecting the mouth or genitals. Lichen planus may affect any area, but is most often seen on the front of the wrists, lower back, ankles and genitals.

On the palms and soles the papules are firm and yellow. Very thick scaly patches are particularly itchy and are most likely to arise around the ankles (hypertrophic lichen planus). New lesions may appear while others are clearing. As the lichen planus papules clear they are often replaced by areas of greyish-brown discolouration, especially in darker skinned people. This is called post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and can persist for months.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind Lichen planus using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Low Libido – Women

More than 50% of menopausal women report low sexual desire, whilst as many as 10% of premenopausal women suffer from hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). It appears that testosterone and oestrogen are both involved in feminine sexual desire. It is shown that testosterone boosts libido post-menopausally due to its aromatisation to oestradiol. Oestrogen is also important, as shown in trials on women who regain libido when using HRT.

Many other factors also play a role in female sexual desire. Dopamine, oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone play an excitatory role in promoting sexual desire, while serotonin, prolactin and opioids have an inhibitory role. Numerous studies show that mood, energy and well-being also play a critical role in determining libido in women.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind low libido using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Low Libido – Men

Libido is governed by both gonadal hormones and brain neurotransmitters and is known to gradually decline in men after the age of 45. A reduction in libido is associated with low testosterone in men. Researchers suggest several changes to male testosterone synthesis and metabolism during ageing, including altered negative feedback mechanism, increased SHBG, and a decline in testosterone receptor sensitivity. Drivers of these changes include inflammation, obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, chronic stress and oxidative stress.

Whilst testosterone levels play a major role in male libido, other hormones and neurotransmitters are also involved in sexual desire, including central dopamine (key controller of sexual desire) and prolactin (which is antagonistic to dopamine and shown to increase markedly in ageing males).

Hyperprolactinaemia is associated with low sexual desire in men, and may elevate secondary to testosterone deficiency in men. Hypothyroidism also appears to dampen libido in both sexes and should be investigated. Likewise, a review of the medications a patient is taking is important, as drugs such as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with sexual dysfunction, with some reports suggesting more than 80% of users are affected.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind low libido using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Lymphoedema support

Lymphoedema is a condition of localised fluid retention caused by a compromised lymphatic system. There is an accumulation of excessive lymph fluid and consequently a swelling of subcutaneous tissues due to obstruction, destruction and/or hypoplasia of lymph vessels.

When the lymphatic impairment becomes so great that the lymph fluid exceeds the lymphatic system’s ability to transport it, an abnormal amount of protein-rich fluid collects in the tissues of the affected area. Left untreated, this stagnant, protein-rich fluid causes tissue channels to increase in size and number, reducing the availability of oxygen. This interferes with wound healing and provides a rich medium for bacterial growth that can result in lymphangitis.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind lymphoedema using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Memory Loss & Poor Concentration

Memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. Patients suffering from poor memory have trouble recollecting information, which can leave them feeling disorientated, confused and/or frustrated.

Concentration can be defined as the ability to focus attention on a single task; the ability to direct one’s thinking in whatever direction one would intend. We all have the ability to concentrate some of the time, at other times however poor concentration results in thoughts that are scattered and unfocussed.

There are of course many reasons for memory problems and poor concentration so in clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind these disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Menopause

Menopause marks the end of the reproductive years of a woman’s life, occurring usually between 45 and 60 years of age, with an average age of 51 years. Menopause occurs as the number of oocytes a woman carries reaches their end point and the ovaries decrease their production of oestrogen and progesterone.

The transition into menopause, called peri-menopause, commonly lasts for 2-3 years, where common signs of change include irregular menses, skin changes, mood changes, depression, memory loss, insomnia, fatigue, vaginal dryness and atrophy, changed libido, night sweats and hot flushes, which may be moderate to debilitating in their effects.

During peri-menopause ovarian sex steroid synthesis slows and ovulation becomes unpredictable, causing fluctuating monthly patterns until menses ceases completely. Menopause is confirmed with the cessation of periods for 12 months with consistently elevated serum FSH levels and low serum oestradiol.

Whilst there may be a decline in plasma levels of oestradiol in menopause, serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone (and the ratio between them) do not reflect the oestrogen and progesterone content in various tissues. Postmenopausal women may sometimes have a relatively high serum oestrogen level despite declining ovarian oestrogen, as adipocytes (fat cells) become a major source of oestrogen biosynthesis, by aromatising circulating testosterone.

Menopausal symptoms are caused by the rapidly changing oestrogen and progesterone levels. The sudden decline in ovarian sex steroid production, and menopausal symptoms reduced, if sex steroid hormone production by the adrenal cortex is supported, as the adrenal cortex must take over where the ovaries left off. Women who are chronically stressed and/or have experienced significant stress (and therefore have depleted adrenal function), are more likely to experience more dramatic decline in sex steroid synthesis during the menopausal transition and thus have worse symptoms. Stress management and adrenal support during the peri- and post-menopause years is therefore vital.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating peri menopausal symptoms and adrenal fatigue using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of change.

Menorrhagia | Heavy Period

Menorrhagia is an abnormally heavy and/or prolonged menstrual flow. There are essentially four types of menorrhagia:

1. Menorrhagia due to anovulation: this form of menorrhagia accounts for up to 70% of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. It is the result of unopposed oestrogen due to progesterone deficiency. Bleeding is prolonged and/or profuse, with pain and clotting. It may occur every 2-3 weeks for 7+ days, resulting in anaemia.

2. Menorrhagia due to luteal phase defects: this form of menorrhagia results from increased oestrogen to progesterone ratios. There is often a shorter cycle of 23-26 days, spotting for 3-6 days before the menses proper and heavy periods for the first 2-3 days.

3. Menorrhagia due to prolonged luteal phase: this form of menorrhagia may result from peri menopausal failure of feedback mechanisms, leading to a relatively high progesterone to oestrogen ratio, with the possibility of raised androgen levels. Bleeding is usually scanty and prolonged.

4. Menorrhagia due to ovarian atrophy: this form of menorrhagia results from low levels of both progesterone and oestrogen. Bleeding is irregular, with the cycle so variable as to be non-existent.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind menorrhagia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease. All the symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome are related to three key factors: insulin resistance,
visceral obesity and endothelial dysfunction. These three factors perpetuate each other in a
vicious cycle. Some of the mediators of these dysfunctional interactions are free fatty acids,
inflammatory cytokines, insulin, nitric oxide and glycated proteins.

The National Cholesterol Education Program states that patients with Metabolic Syndrome have
three or more of these five criteria:
• Abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm in men, and >88 cm in women)
• Hypertriglyceridaemia (>1.69 mmol/litre)
• Low HDL ( • Hypertension (>130/85 mmHg)
• Elevated fasting glucose (>5.5 mmol/litre)

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind metabolic syndrome using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Metal Toxicity | Heavy Metal Overload

Toxic metals, often called ‘Heavy Metals’, may enter the human body through food, water, air, or absorption through the skin in agriculture and in manufacturing, pharmaceutical, industrial, or residential settings. Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolised by the body and accumulate in various tissues.

Acute toxicity manifests as cramping, nausea, and vomiting; pain; sweating; headaches; difficulty breathing; impaired cognitive, motor, and language skills; mania; and convulsions.

Chronic toxic exposure may be generally difficult to associate with its cause. Chronic toxic exposure may present as the chronic diseases associated with long term exposure, such as obesity, chronic fatigue, hormonal imbalances, cancers or cardiovascular disease, which may develop slowly over years.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind toxic metal overload using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Migraines

Migraines are a type of headache caused by excessive neurovascular dilation. Migraine attacks are characterised by throbbing, recurring headaches, typically affecting only one side of the head. Onset is sudden, and pain is usually severe. Visual, auditory, neurological, or gastrointestinal symptoms may appear 10 to 30 minutes before head pain or may accompany the headache. Duration may be from a few hours to several days.

True migraine headaches affect approximately 10% of the population and are more common in females than males. True migraine is consistently present with aura, which provides warning of the upcoming attack. Migraines may begin at any age; they are most common between age 10 and 30 and may vanish after age 50 or, in women, after menopause.

The underlying aetiology of migraines is not known, though abnormal serotonin metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. The serotonin causes blood vessels to the brain and scalp to constrict and then dilate, irritating surrounding nerves and resulting in pulsating or pounding pain with blood flow.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind migraines using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of rebalancing.

Miscarriage prevention support

Miscarriage is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the foetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 24 weeks. Miscarriages are the most common complication of pregnancy. Approximately 15% of pregnancies terminate in spontaneous abortion, most often in the 10th-12th weeks of gestation. Defective implantation, inadequacies of foetal development, or death of the foetus due to some genetic or acquired (infection or toxic) abnormality are the major causes of miscarriage.

A threatened abortion is the development of symptoms (bleeding with or without cramps or low back pain) that often suggest impending miscarriage. With such a presentation of bleeding, 50% proceed to inevitable abortion. If the pregnant woman has vaginal bleeding, she is said to have a “threatened abortion.” Many patients with first trimester bleeding will be found to have a subchorionic hematoma and do well. In about half, such bleeding will progress to miscarriage. With pain and opening of the cervix a woman is about to have an “inevitable abortion,” which indicates that she has an absolute probability of miscarrying. Habitual abortion (recurrent pregnancy loss or recurrent miscarriage) is the occurrence of 3 consecutive miscarriages. There are various medical conditions associated with this problem (e.g., Antiphospholipid syndrome or defects with the MTHFR gene).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind miscarriage using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body through its process of self-regeneration and support possible further miscarriages.

Mouth Ulcers

A mouth ulcer is an open sore inside the mouth caused by a break in the mucous membrane or the epithelium on the lips or surrounding the mouth. The types of mouth ulcers are diverse, with a multitude of associated causes. Once formed, the ulcer may be maintained by inflammation and/or secondary infection. Two common mouth ulcer types are aphthous ulcers (canker sores) and cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind mouth ulcers using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Muscle Cramping

Most muscle cramps are easily treated and you need not suffer from them. What is a muscle cramp?A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax and can happen in many parts of the body. There are a number of different cramping disorders, including:

•True cramps: these affect skeletal muscle and involve part or all of a single muscle or a group of muscles that generally act together, and are caused by hyperexcitability of the nerves that stimulate the muscles. They are overwhelmingly the most common type of skeletal muscle cramps and are most common in the calf muscles and feet.

• Menstrual cramps: linked to menstrual cycles, these cramps are felt in the abdomen, lower back and thighs.

•Nocturnal leg cramps: these involuntary muscle contractions occur in the calves, soles of the feet or other muscles in the body during the night.

•Colic: painful cramping of smooth muscle. Various organs can be affected, including the intestine, uterus, ureter (in kidney stone pain), etc.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause of cramps using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disorder characterised by degradation of both proteoglycans within the cartilage and sub-chondral bone in the joint. Continued breakdown of proteoglycans and loss of glycosaminoglycans leads to abrasion of the articular cartilage and functional deterioration of the joint. This deformity and ongoing turnover of the cartilage matrix leads to pain, stiffness and joint swelling.

OA is the most common form of arthritis and frequently affects hands, knees, hips, and spine. As many as 90% of individuals over the age of 40 show degenerative changes on x-ray; however not all of these individuals have symptoms.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating osteoarthritis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which the bone mineral density is reduced, bone micro-architecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is changed.

Osteoporotic bones are more susceptible to fracture. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old person standard) as measured by DXA scan. Low peak bone mass is important in the development of osteoporosis. Achieving a higher peak bone mass through exercise and proper nutrition is important for prevention.

The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Either bone resorption by osteoblast cells is excessive, and/or bone formation by osteoclast cells is diminished. Bone formation is not static; it is constantly subject to turnover and remodelling as bones sustain recurring microtrauma, with breakage of small spicules of trabecular bone.

Remodelling generally occurs in an orderly fashion: bone resorption is always followed by bone formation, a phenomenon referred to as coupling. It is an accumulation of fractures in trabecular bone that are incompletely repaired that leads to the manifestation of osteoporosis—a failure of the coupling mechanism to keep up with the constant microtrauma.

Common osteoporotic fracture sites are the wrist, the hip and the spine. These areas have a relatively high trabecular bone to cortical bone ratio and rely on trabecular bone for strength.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind osteoporosis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Period Pain | Dysmenorrhoea

Dysmenorrhoea is pain associated with the woman’s period. The pain may begin before or at the start of the menses, usually peaks after 24 hours, and decreases after 48 hours. It is most common during adolescence and tends to decrease over time and after pregnancy. Pain results from myometrial uterine contractions stimulated by increased prostaglandin production in secretory endometrium.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind dysmenorrhoea using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process to create balance in the body.

Pernicious Anaemia

Pernicious anaemia refers to a type of anaemia which may be autoimmune but basically means that a person has very low levels of vitamin B12. Antibodies can be directed against parietal cells which produce intrinsic factor. As intrinsic factor is required for vitamin B12 absorption, so impaired absorption of vitamin B12 results, with consequent megaloblastic anaemia. Pernicious anaemia may also be due to impaired B12 absorption or low dietary intake.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind pernicious anaemia using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive disorder characterised by multiple cystic growths on the ovaries. PCOS develops when the ovaries are stimulated to produce excessive amounts of male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone, either through the release of excessive luteinising hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland or through high levels of insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinaemia) in women whose ovaries are sensitive to this stimulus.

PCOS is characterised by a complex set of symptoms with research to date suggesting that insulin resistance is a leading cause. A majority of patients with PCOS (some investigators say all) have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a common finding among both normal weight and overweight PCOS patients. Their elevated insulin levels contribute to or cause the abnormalities seen in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis that lead to PCOS.

Specifically, hyperinsulinaemia causes a number of endocrinological changes associated with PCOS, including the following:
• Increased GnRH pulse frequency.
• LH over FSH dominance.
• Increased ovarian androgen production.
• Decreased follicular maturation.
• Decreased SHBG binding.

PCOS is the most common cause of oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea, although 20-25% of normally menstruating women have PCOS. These women may have reduced fertility and an increased risk of miscarriage.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind PCOS using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica PMR

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a syndrome characterised by severe pain and stiffness in the muscles of the neck, shoulders, lower back, hips and thighs. There is no corresponding weakness of the muscles and stiffness is most noticeable in the morning. It is thought that PMR is a result of blood vessels becoming inflamed.

The cause of PMR is presently unknown. An increased frequency of systemic monocyte activation is characteristic of PMR, patients also often have elevated interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. One hypothesis holds that in a genetically predisposed patient, an environmental factor (e.g., viral infection), causes monocyte activation and subsequently, inflammation. Prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus was reportedly higher in patients with PMR. Occurrence in siblings suggests a genetic role in the pathophysiology of the disease. It is thought to be a Th1 excess condition.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind polymyalgia rheumatica using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Post Natal support

It is very common for mothers to become run down in the post natal period, due to lost sleep and giving much of her nutrition throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is important to support mothers both nutritionally, as well as to encourage them to seek support to manage the fatigue and stress commonly experienced with a new baby.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when supporting the new mother using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support mother and baby.

Preconceptual care

Preconception care is the ultimate in preventative medicine. Ideally both partners have the opportunity to assess and address any issues that may compromise fertility, as well as take the time to reduce any toxic exposure, achieve a healthy body composition and build nutritional credit to give every opportunity for fertility, an uncomplicated pregnancy and a healthy baby.

Stress and nutrition are major environmental signals that influence both fertility and the developing foetus, making these important areas of focus to educate prospective parents in the preconception phase of growing their family.

Preconception care should ideally begin at least 4 months prior to the conception attempts. This preparation time is necessary as the ova take 3 months to mature and sperm take 2- 4 months to generate. Ensuring the health of sperm and ova by managing oxidative stress, reducing toxicity and providing nutritional support notably reduces the risk of miscarriage and supports a full term uncomplicated pregnancy.

Men are often overlooked in the preconception stages, but their contribution of half the genetic material is, of course, extremely important. Sperm production requires adequate nutritional levels and an absence of chemicals – since sperm are susceptible to oxidative damage from temperature, environmental and dietary toxins, toxins and radiation, so including both partners in a preconception care program is vital.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when supporting conceptual care using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support both parents.

Pregnancy – General Support

Pregnancy is a time when a woman makes a significant nutritional investment in the development and health of her off-spring. Ideally, pregnancy follows a preconception care program and is maintained with optimal nutrient intake to lay the foundation for a healthy pregnancy and child. Nutritional deficiencies during the critical periods of development from fertilisation through to infanthood are shown to have life-long effects, such as increasing their susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction, immune dysfunction (allergies, autoimmunity and infections) and behavioural disorders (anxiety, insomnia and ADD/ADHD).

The aim is to provide optimal maternal nutritional status for a healthy pregnancy and the long term benefit of both mother and child.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when supporting pregnancy using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the mother and baby.

Pregnancy – Morning Sickness

Morning sickness is the acute, transient nausea associated with pregnancy. ‘Morning Sickness’ is a misnomer – as it may occur at any time of the day, though it most commonly occurs soon after waking. It is thought to be caused by increased levels of oestrogen being produced by the placenta and/or by increased levels of human chorionic gonadotropin.

Morning sickness usually starts in the first month of the pregnancy, peaking in the 6th week, and continuing until the 16th week. For 50% of all sufferers, it ends by the 16th week of pregnancy. For the other half, it may take up to another month to get relief but some women will have morning sickness off and on for their entire pregnancy.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind morning sickness using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process.

Pregnancy –Stress

There are many potential stressors during any normal pregnancy however, for some women it is important to manage stress responses for the wellbeing of both mother and baby. It is well documented how extraordinary or chronic stress influences the off-springs stress response for life. Severe stress during pregnancy may also increase the risk of miscarriage or pre-term delivery.

Common signs and symptoms of poor stress response include:

•Neurological dysfunction: Anxiety, poor concentration, excessive worry, insomnia, depression &/or extreme fatigue.

•Cardiovascular symptoms: Palpitations, clammy palms.

•Digestive dysfunction: Digestive cramping, irritable bowel syndrome, food intolerances, hypochlorhydria.

•Immunological dysfunction: Inflammation, increased risk of infection, predisposition to allergies.

•Metabolic dysfunctions: insulin resistance, obesity.

•Musculoskeletal disorders: Muscular tension (eg: shoulders), tension headaches.

•Other common presenting signs and symptoms: declining vision and/or hearing, fatigue, loss of skin elasticity.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach to supporting a healthy pregnancy and supporting the mother to be during the various stresses of pregnancy using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the mother and baby.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) | Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition characterised by somatic and psychological symptoms that occur during the week before the period begins (luteal phase) and end within a few days of the onset of bleeding. PMS symptoms do not occur in prepubertal, postmenopausal, anovulatory women, or women who have undergone oophorectomy.

Approximately 75% of women experience PMS to some degree. PMS should not be confused with dysmenorrhoea, which refers to pain or cramps during menstruation.

Progesterone, oestrogen and their metabolites —secreted in the luteal phase —and their variable extrahepatic metabolism may be responsible for PMS. Decreased synthesis of serotonin during the luteal phase suggests an important role of this neuroendocrine mechanism in PMS.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a severe, disabling form of PMS. In PMDD, the main symptoms are mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, tension, and persistent anger or irritability. These severe symptoms lead to problems with relationships and carrying out normal activities. Women with PMDD usually also have physical symptoms, such as headache, joint and muscle pain, lack of energy, bloating and breast tenderness.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind PMS using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the imbalance and bring back quality of life.

Prostate Cancer support

Each year in Australia 20,000 new diagnoses of prostate cancer are made. Ninety-five percent of prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. The other 5% include squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, sarcoma and, rarely, metastatic disease from another primary site (lung, melanoma, or lymphoma). In the vast majority of cases, prostate cancer remains dormant for decades: one-third of malignancies are identified at autopsy. No specific agent has been identified, but environmental, nutritional, hormonal (including oestrogen and androgen imbalances, as well as insulin resistance and obesity shown to play a role), and genetic factors have all been implicated.

Occupational exposure is linked to workers in tyre and rubber manufacturing, sheet metal industries, smokers and farmers, and those exposed to cadmium have higher mortality rates from prostate cancer. Some studies suggest that testosterone plays a role in the development of prostate cancer, but information is inconclusive. Family clusters have been identified, making hereditary risk possible.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind prostatic conditions using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body, importantly alongside allopathic medicines.

Prostate enlargement |Benign Protastic Hyperplasia |Prostatitis

The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male reproductive system. Its main function is to store and secrete a clear, slightly basic fluid that constitutes up to one-third of the volume of semen. A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnut and surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder. The most common disorders of the prostate are benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is associated with ageing and is estimated to affect 70% of men aged ?70 years. An enlarged prostate causes obstruction of urinary flow and can result in serious medical complications, including acute urinary retention (which can lead to renal failure), recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder calculi and haematuria.

Dihydro-testosterone (DHT), a metabolite of testosterone, is a critical mediator of prostatic growth. DHT is synthesised in the prostate from circulating testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5?-reductase, providing a target for medical and holistic treatments. Whilst total androgen levels may not be abnormal in BPH patients, the androgen-to-oestrogen ratio potentially upsets the balance of factors that regulate growth in the prostate.

Prostatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the prostate. Prostatitis can be idiopathic (i.e., nonbacterial prostatitis), or bacterial (i.e., caused by enteric gram-negative bacilli). It commonly causes pain in the testicles and may sometimes cause problems with ejaculation, urination, or defaecation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind prostate disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the skin characterised by red scaly patches (psoriasis plaques). These plaques are areas of excessive skin cell production within the dermis. Newly generated cells rise to the skin’s surface within days, accumulating in thick, crusty patches. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any area, including the scalp and genitals. The disorder is a chronic or recurring condition which can vary in severity, from minor localised patches to complete body coverage. Fingernails and toenails are frequently affected (psoriatic nail dystrophy), as are the joints (psoriatic arthritis).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind Psoriasis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

 

Pyrrole Disorder, Pyroluria

Pyroluria ( for a link to the Pyrrole Australia Face book page click here)

Important Note: I am very often asked if I know of a practitioner or G.P that I could recommend for pyrrole treatment. I do not keep a list of practitioners, but am happy to help you any way I can personally either via in clinic consultation or via Skype or phone consultation. I do however have a list of places to get your sample taken, but you will need to contact me via the ‘contact page’ (see links above) NOT the comments below (please) and let me know where you live, so that I can direct you to the correct collection center. Thank you.

Pyrrole disorder, also known as pyroluria, kryptopyroluria, kryptopyrole or Mauve disorder is a biochemical imbalance involving an abnormality in hemoglobin synthesis that can be purely genetic or acquired through environmental and emotional stress and especially from ‘leaky gut syndrome’ and the over use of antibiotics.

Pyrrole disorder is caused by the overproduction of hydroxyhempyrolin (HPL). The HPL binds zinc and B6 preventing their use by the body and causing excretion in the urine and hair. HPL is a biomarker for oxidative stress and is neurotoxic. Stress of any kind will increases production of pyrroles/HPL which in turn decreases zinc and B6

The main biochemical features are of severe zinc and B6 deficiency. Zinc is essential for 100’s of processes in the body and is particularly important for healing, immune function, digestion, neurotransmitter activation, physical growth, memory, insulin sensitivity, and control of blood sugars, DNA replication and more….

Zinc and B6 are essential for production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin (our happy hormone), melatonin (our sleep hormone), GABA (our relaxation hormone), and acetyl choline which is important for memory. They are also involved in production of our steroid hormones such as cortisol (our anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy hormone and stress hormone) and the conversion of oils in the body (fat metabolism, liver and gall bladder issues and weight control). The oils EPA/DHA but mostly GLA are found to be low in those with pyrrole disorder and are damaged by oxidative stress/free radicals/toxins created by pyrrole.

Signs and symptoms suggestive of someone having pyroluria.

White spots on fingernails (zinc deficiency) is a strong sign of this problem. Hypoglycemia/sugar intolerance is common, as are food and environmental allergies. Other common symptoms are joint pains (especially knee pain), fatigue, headaches (especially migraine headaches), bowel dysfunction such as irritable bowel syndrome, easy bruising, dizziness, insomnia, poor memory and difficulty concentrating. Poor stress control, nervousness, anxiety, mood swings, severe inner tension, episodic anger, poor short-term memory and depression are other common symptoms

Obviously, such symptoms are common, and not everyone who has them will have pyroluria and not everyone with this disorder will have all of the symptoms and may even have only two, but have difficulty treating these symptoms with the usual methods.

The treatment to correct the imbalance seems surprisingly simple. It involves taking zinc, vitamin B6 and/or pyridoxal 5-phosphate (activated B6), GLA, an essential omega 6 fatty acid found in evening primrose, borage and black currant oil, Vit E and magnesium.

However, just because the treatment seems relatively simple to describe does not mean that it is easy to do. As people start to take these needed nutrients they may feel terrible as heavy metals and other toxins are released into circulation and their immune system is activated, causing microbial toxins to also be released.

These nutrients should be introduced gradually with the supervision of a qualified practitioner and often need further support on an individual basis. It is not advisable for people to self medicate as B6 & zinc toxicity can also be an issue for some people if their body still can’t utilise these nutrients properly and so close observation by an experienced practitioner is important. Adding the nutrients that will correct the pyroluria will not make all of the patients problems go away, as those who have this tend to have chronic microbial infections, a sea of accumulated toxins and a history of emotional wounds to still deal with. Correcting the pyroluria, however, will allow them to respond appropriately to other treatments that would have been previously ineffective and help them to finally move down the road towards true healing.

Unfortunately pyroluria is not a recognized condition by many health practitioners. It is wide-spread and mental health experts estimate as high as 20% of all psychiatric patients and 40% of people with schizophrenia and 5% of ‘normal’ people have pyroluria. I personally am seeing this statistic a lot higher in my clinic in ‘normal’ clients. It seems to affect women more than men but unfortunately most people with pyroluria go undiagnosed.

Diagnosis Pyroluria is diagnosed by a simple urine test which detects KPU in urine. Most persons have less than 10mcg/dL of KPU. Persons with 10-20 mcg/dl are considered to have “borderline” pyroluria and may still benefit from treatment. Persons with levels above 20 mcg/dl are considered to have pyroluria. Some have levels in the hundreds.

Treatment Pyroluria is managed in part by restoring vitamin B6 and zinc.  The type of replacement therapy is very important as zinc must be provided in an efficiently absorbed form. Vitamin B6 is also available in several forms. Other nutrients may assist include niacinamide (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), methylcobalamin (B12), manganese, vitamins C, E and magnesium. Food sources and nutritional supplements containing copper and red/yellow food dyes should be avoided. Copper is commonly high in people with pyroluria and needs to be detoxified. It is advisable to have mineral and metal levels, ratios and balnces performed by a Hair mineral analysis to get the treatment correct. I prefer to use a lab in the United Sates as they have an excellent reporting system that is usually around 38 pages long. The cost is only $160 plus postage of kit and postage of sample to the lab (minimal). Kits can be obtained from the True Vitality Clinic. see Heavy metal and Mineral testing for more info.

People with mild-moderate pyroluria usually have a fairly rapid response to treatment if no other chemical imbalances are present. People with severe pyroluria usually require several weeks before progress is seen and improvement may be gradual over 3 – 12 months. Features of pyroluria usually recur within 2 – 4 weeks if the nutritional program is stopped.  Thus, the need for treatment is thought to be indefinite, but with good management and healthy lifestyle and emotional balance I feel that it is possible to need no supplementation once the correct balance is created and a fairly stress-free life is sustained.

The history of pyrrole discovery

Pyroluria, was first noted by Abram Hoffer MD, PhD and Humphrey Osmond, MRCS, DPM in the early 1960’s in their research on metabolic imbalances in people with schizophrenia This condition has been found to be relatively common in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depressive disease) by orthomolecular psychiatrists (psychiatrists who focus on nutritional therapies); they have found approximately 20% of schizophrenics have this condition, and they tend to respond well to treating it. But Dr. Klinghardt and others have found that not everyone with this condition suffers from such extreme psychiatric problems (though many may have some tendency towards anxiety and/or depression). Indeed, the breakthrough Dr. Klinghardt has made is in recognizing how common this condition may be in other people with chronic illness.

In the early 1970’s Carl Pfieffer MD PhD found evidence of kryptopyroluria in 5 % of normal people he tested (people without serious psychiatric illness). This may represent the percentage of the population with a strong genetic tendency to kryptopyroluria, but it is possible the number of people with this problem has increased due to our increasing exposure to environmental stressors (microbes and toxins) as well as increasing emotional unrest (stress increases pyrroles) and the higher use of electronic devises (positive ions) which also leads to less ‘natural living’ and less exercise and fresh air.

Testing for pyrrole disorder

Pyrrole is extremely sensitive to light and heat and so a urine sample must be collected in an environment with the least exposure to light as possible, in a container with a preserving agent such as vitamin C, wrapped in alfoil upon sample collection, snap frozen and then sent to the testing laboratory on dry ice, so for this reason it is not advisable to send your urine sample in the post even if frozen first. Many a person has been misdiagnosed this way and then missed out on appropriate treatment, not to mention the loss of cost of the test.

Testing laboratory – Applied Analytical Laboratories – Brisbane

There are a few testing laboratories in Australia, but the most accurate and reliable one I have used is a lab that is dedicated to only testing for pyrroles and nothing else, so they are specialists in this field and dedicate all of their time to this testing, research into pyroluria as well as research and development of better collection systems. They are AAL. For a list of places around Australia that a collection can be done and for your practitioner request sheet, please email me via my ‘contact’ page, not the ‘comments’ section below, so that I can then speak to you directly and give you the right details and sheets. Note please give me your area that you live in so I can give you the place closet to you.  Brett from AAL has written a post to answer questions on why correct collection procedures are important and the science behind it all. Very well worth a read. You can find this post by clicking here.

Important notes

Please note, that it is super important how the collection of the urine sample is taken and even more important that it is handled correctly to get to the lab without the pyrroles in the sample deteriorating. The sample must be collected in a dimmly lit room if possible, in a special container that has a preservative. The urine must not be pre-collected, but done directly into the specimen container and then immediately wrapped in aluminum foil, as pyrrole levels are affected by light and heat. Then the sample must be snap frozen and delivered to the lab with dry-ice, not just frozen and posted as some labs do, or there will be a false negative or low reading. see above link.

The best time of day to do the test is from the second morning urine sample of the day onwards, so when booking your time with the collection center please take this into account when booking your time. You do not have to be fasting, only off B6 and zinc, unless retesting to check if your dose is working.

It is best to not have taken any B6 or zinc for at least two weeks prior to collection as this too will give a potential false  reading. If you have been taking B6 supplements for longer than 6 months already, then you will need to get your B6 levels tested first after a few days ‘clean out’ of no products, to see if you have elevated B6 which will block the test from working. If you have elevated B6 levels then don’t do the testing till your B6 is back into reference range or again the test will potentially have a false negative reading or a lower reading. However, for follow-up pyrrole testing, you must stay on your B6 and zinc regime to show that the dose that you are on is correct for your level of pyroluria.

It is also important to note that even though B6 and zinc are used as part of the treatment of pyroluria, taking these products doesn’t always work if they are the wrong types, but can still accumulate to toxic levels in the body and be causing more harm than good. Many people with pyrrole find that because their body doesn’t utilise minerals well, they can still have toxic levels showing up in the blood.

Important also is to not just be on the treatment without monitoring of your B6, zinc and copper levels or you could risk getting toxic levels or further imbalancing other things. In short, pyroluria needs continued observation with a good practitioner.

Please know that I can offer any tests needed (via pathology request sheet), but there is no medicare rebate with Naturopaths pathology requests.  If you would like the rebate then you will need to find a good GP that tests for nutritionals. Medicare generally does not cover vitamin testing (except iron), but it is not expensive to do. Please note that pyrrole screening is not covered by Medicare even if requested by a GP. The pyrrole screening also needs  a request sheet which I can also offer and then we can have an in clinic, phone or skype consultation. To organise this please contact me via my ‘contact’ page and NOT on the comments below. Comments below are for sharing of experiences of pyrrole with others or you can visit the Pyrrole Australia Face Book page and have discussion and comments with others with pyrrole disorder by clicking here.

Important Note: I am very often asked if I know of a practitioner or G.P that I could recommend for treatment. I do not keep a list of practitioners, but am happy to help you any way I can personally either via in clinic consultation or via skype or phone consultation. I do however have a list of places to get your sample taken, but you will need to contact me via the ‘contact page’ not the comments below and let me know here you live, so that I can direct you to the correct collection center. Thank you.

Questions

I had a question asked of me below in the comments but I felt it was important to share this up here where everyone can see as it was a good question…here’s my response

A question was recently emailed to me that I will abbreviate to the following: If B6 and zinc bind to pyrroles to help get pyrroles out of the body then why do we need to stop taking B6 and zinc before testing…shouldn’t this help to show pyrrole excretion and not actually interfere with the test results. And also, if you have a deficiency of B6 and zinc would this in turn increase pyrroles in the body.

Yes it is true that pyrroles bind to B6 and zinc in the body and so thereby creating a deficiency of these nutrients in the body and that the use of B6 and zinc can help to both replete the deficiency and also help to reduce the pyrroles, but it is how it reduces the pyrroles that is important.

Just having a deficiency in these nutrients doesn’t in itself cause an increase in pyrroles but rather a faulty enzyme pathway in the liver causes them to increase.

Every single person makes pyrroles as a by-product of the conversion of iron into haemoglobin (in less technical words), but if the livers P450 enzyme pathway is faulty then there is a higher amount of these toxic metabolites/by-products produced.

These toxic metabolites then bind to B6 and Zinc, or rather, the liver binds B6 and zinc to the pyrroles to make them safe to leave the body. It is the livers job to bind (conjugate) toxins of all sorts to help them safely out of the body. Toxic metabolites are often bound to particular amino acids but for this toxin the liver uses B6 and zinc. In the bound state this substance is no longer detectable as pyrrole because it is a different substance altogether than it was before and so therefore is undetected.

If a person has been taking B6 and zinc then the test can show a negative reading or lower reading than if not taking the supplements as the pyrroles will be bound and in a non-detectable form.

The higher the pyrrole level, the higher the need to take B6 and zinc to bind and clear it safely from the body as well as replete the deficiency state that can cause many symptoms.

Doses needs to be monitored and adjusted for the individual as some cannot tolerate high levels of B6 or zinc as there is still the underlying issue of poor conversion of vitamins and minerals in the first place (remember the P450 pathway is faulty). Having a faulty P450 pathway means that there are other vitamins and minerals that the liver cannot convert to the active form properly but because this doesn’t form toxic by-products (that we are aware of) then that is not looked at, but in general there is commonly other vitamins and minerals and fatty acids that can and are deficient or improperly utilised by the body effectively.

When the blood is tested for nutrient levels it will often show adequate levels but if the liver is not converting them properly or they are not being utilised properly then it is as though the body is still deficient. This is something that has many practitioners scratching their head as they think “I was sure that person was B12 (eg) deficient but their levels show to be fine: But this is another story….to be continue…

Important Note: I am very often asked if I know of a practitioner or G.P that I could recommend for treatment. I do not keep a list of practitioners, but am happy to help you any way I can personally either via in clinic consultation or via skype or phone consultation. I do however have a list of places to get your sample taken, but you will need to contact me via the ‘contact page’ not the comments below and let me know here you live, so that I can direct you to the correct collection center. Thank you.

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Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterised by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move when at rest in an effort to relieve these feelings. RLS sensations are often described by people as burning, creeping, tugging, or like insects crawling inside the legs. Often called paraesthesias (abnormal sensations) or dysaesthesias (unpleasant abnormal sensations), the sensations range in severity from uncomfortable or irritating to painful.

Moving the affected body part eliminates the sensation, providing temporary relief. The sensations and need to move may return immediately after ceasing movement, or at a later time. The most distinctive or unusual aspect of the condition is that lying down and trying to relax activates the symptoms. As a result, most people with RLS have difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep. Left untreated, the condition causes exhaustion and daytime fatigue.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind RLS using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the imbalance.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease. RA is a destructive and deforming multiple arthritis affecting small and large joints with associated systemic disturbances, a variety of extra features and the presence of circulating antibodies called rheumatoid factors.

Symptom severity and disease progression vary widely between individuals. Onset may be rapid or creep up on a person solely. Approximately 20% of cases have an intermittent course with periods of partial to complete remission. Flare-ups may involve more joints than were initially affected, but remission periods often last longer than flare-ups. The majority of cases however are progressive and the rate of progression can be slow or rapid.

Early age of onset, high rheumatoid factor titre and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) correspond to a poor prognosis. Involvement of more than 20 to 30 joints and presence of extra-articular symptoms also correspond with a poor outcome. Women generally have a poorer outcome than men. Individuals experiencing unrelieved symptoms for two or more years are at increased risk of premature death due to infection, heart disease, respiratory failure, renal failure, and gastrointestinal disease.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating Rheumatoid arthritis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body.

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Sinusitis |Rhinitis

Rhinitis and sinusitis are inflammatory disorders of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. Rhinitis is inflammation of the nasal membranes caused by infection or IgE-mediated allergic reaction to airborne allergens. It may also be due to non-allergic and non-infective reasons such as vasomotor rhinitis. Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses that causes impaired sinus mucociliary clearance and is also caused by either an upper respiratory tract infection (bacterial, viral or fungal) or more commonly due to allergies that can be respiratory (air born) or food allergy related or a combination of both.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind sinus and rhinitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Sjogrens Syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is a relatively common autoimmune disease that mainly affects the eyes and salivary glands. Immune system cells, called lymphocytes, and autoantibodies attack the body’s moisture-producing glands. This results in dryness of the mouth, eyes or other tissues.

The typical symptoms of dry eyes and mouth may take years to show. However, rapid onset can also occur. Symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, and the progression is often unpredictable.

Women are most commonly affected by Sjogren’s syndrome. There is no cure, but the disorder can be managed. Sjogren’s syndrome is not usually life-threatening. However, in rare cases, organs such as the liver and kidneys may be involved, which can increase the severity of the condition. In a small number of people, Sjogren’s syndrome may be associated with lymphoma (cancer of the lymph glands).

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind auto-immune disorders such as Sjogrens syndrome using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria are present in the small intestine, and the types of bacteria in the small intestine more closely resemble the bacteria of the colon. Unlike the colon (or large bowel), which is rich with bacteria, the small bowel usually has less than 104 organisms per millilitre of fluid. Likewise, the types of bacteria within the small intestine are different than the types of bacteria within the colon. Ordinarily bacteria are moved out of the small bowel into the large bowel via peristalsis and the ileo-cecal valve prevents movement of bacteria from the colon back into the small intestine. However, disruptions in intestinal motility or physical disturbances inhibit this natural defensive pattern and bacteria begin to accumulate in the small intestine.

SIBO is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Flora overgrowth may break down bile acids, necessary for absorption of fats, thus reducing absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. In severe cases, bacteria may damage small intestinal wall thus impairing carbohydrate and protein absorption resulting in malnutrition. Anemia may also develop, when bacteria interfere with B12 reabsorption.

Patients with SIBO typically develop symptoms including nausea, bloating, and diarrhoea, which are caused by a number of mechanisms. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome is commonly treated with antibiotics, which may be given in a cyclic fashion to prevent tolerance to the antibiotics, but can also be effectively treated with herbs and nutritional compounds and well as a low FODMAP and low sugar diet which helps to reduce the fermentation in the small intestines.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind SIBO using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Stroke Recovery support

A stroke occurs when there is a disruption of the blood flow to the brain. There are two broad categories of stroke. Ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction) accounts for 80% of all strokes and results from embolic obstruction or thrombosis. Haemorrhagic stroke, accounting for the other 20% of strokes, results from bleeding either into the subarachnoid space or the parenchyma of the brain.

With a stroke, neurological function is lost not only from cerebral ischaemia but also from what is termed reperfusion injury. Ischaemia results in a decrease in ATP production and consequent failure of cellular function through energy depletion. However, more damage is actually caused by the restoration of circulation.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating stroke using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to best support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune condition that can affect many of the body systems. The different symptoms of this disease can include severe inflammation of the veins, eruptions on the skin plus often nervous system and kidney impairment. It is often thought that there is a production of pathogenic autoantibodies and immune complexes that result in inflammation and cellular injury.

A person with Lupus can be supported by first using a combination of careful history taking, live blood screening, iridology and sclerology and other tests as needed and then we work together to make any necessary changes with diet and lifestyle as well as  nutritional and or herbal preparations to best support the healing of your body.

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Thrombosis – tendency

Tendency to thrombosis or abnormal blood clotting can occur as a result of thrombocytosis, but may also occur in other conditions. Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. The formation of a thrombus is usually caused by an injury to the vessel’s wall (due to injury, trauma, oxidative damage, etc), and by the slowing or stagnation of blood flow past the point of injury. Thrombi can form in either veins or arteries. Veins in the legs are most susceptible to blood clot formation, but thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel. The location and size of the blood clot often determines the severity of symptoms.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind health disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Ulcers –Peptic | Duodenal

Peptic ulcers are lesions that can be found on the lining of the stomach or the duodenum, known as gastric ulcers (GU) and duodenal ulcers (DU), respectively. They may also affect the oesophagus as a result of chronic gastrointestinal reflux.

Duodenal ulcers are the most common of these. Signs and symptoms of peptic ulcers can include: Nausea, dyspepsia, bloating, belching, vomiting, pain between the breastbones (Epigastric), often burning or gnawing that occurs after eating and usually lasts from one to three hours. Duodenal ulcers are classically relieved by food, while gastric ulcers are exacerbated by it.

In clinic I find that it is important to look at possible causes. Is it from an infection such as Helicobacter Pylori; from food allergy; too much of certain foods; acidity issues; use of medication that has upset the fine balance; or is it stress; anxiety; repressed emotions? There can be many causes and equally as many treatments suggestions.

Using a combination of careful history taking, live blood screening, iridology and sclerology and other tests as needed such as pathology for the detection of bacterial infections together we will work out the most appropriate changes in diet and lifestyle factors as well as recommendations for nutritional and or herbal preparations to best support the healing of your ulcer/s.

Urinary Tract Infection | Cystitis

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are very common especially with women and are mainly due to bacterial infection but can also be due to candidiasis infection (yeast). The main bacterial organisms can include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella and Proteus. Cystitis is the term used for a bladder infection for the above reasons. Symptoms of cystitis include frequent urgent burning or painful passing of small volumes of urine. Lower back pain is also a very common symptom.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause UTI’s and cystitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Uterine Fibroids

A uterine fibroid is a tumorous growth derived from uterine muscle. They may be found in any part of the uterus and are oestrogen responsive. Uterine fibroids are the most common neoplasm in females with their size varying from microscopic to lesions of considerable size. Typically lesions the size of a grapefruit or bigger may be felt by the patient herself through the abdominal wall. Fibroids may be single or multiple.

Most fibroids start in an intramural location – that is, the layer of the muscle of the uterus. With further growth, some lesions may develop towards the outside of the uterus (subserosal or pedunculated), some towards the cavity (submucosal or intracavitary). Lesions affecting the cavity tend to bleed more and interfere with pregnancy.

Uterine fibroids are oestrogen sensitive and have oestrogen receptors. They may enlarge rapidly during pregnancy due to increased oestrogen levels. With menopause, as oestrogen levels decline, fibroids tend to shrink.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind fibroids using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Vaginitis

Vaginitis is where the vagina is inflamed for various reason such as an overgrowth of trichomonads or by an increase in normal flora such as Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis, or other anaerobes.

Candida overgrowth in the vaginal tract is called vulvovaginitis and is the most common cause of discharge in women. The Candida yeast-like fungus causes approximately 40% of all vaginitis, and about 75% of women get Candida vaginitis at some time in their life.

The candida yeast constitutes part of the normal flora of the vaginal tract in women, but infection or overgrowth occurs when there are changes in the female body’s resistance or changes in bacterial flora levels. A small amount of vaginal discharge is normal at mid-cycle (ovulation) and should not be confused with vaginitis.

Vaginitis may also be due to low oestrogen especially with menopause, in which case there will be vaginal dryness and possibly spotting if the mucous membranes are raw. Allergy and chemical irritation are also possible sources of inflammation.

Major causative and risk factors of vaginitis

  • Leaky gut / dysbiosis
  • Allergy and chemical irritation—toilet paper, soap, shampoo, dyes in underwear, latex, condoms, etc.
  • Low oestrogen
  • Anaemia
  • Oral contraceptive use
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Antibiotic therapy—especially with broad spectrum types
  • Pregnancy (due to increased heat and moisture and hormonal shifts)
  • Corticosteroid use
  • Immunosuppressive drugs and conditions
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection—frequent candidiasis
  • Hypothyroidism

 

Common signs and symptoms of vaginitis:

  • Genital itching or burning
  • Vaginal odour (may be described as foul or fishy)
  • Vaginal discharge which may be grey, yellow or green in colour
  • Inflammation (irritation, redness, and swelling caused by the presence of extra
  • immune cells) of the labia majora, labia minora, or perineal area
  • Discomfort or burning when urinating

Dietary and lifestyle guidelines that may assist in the management of vaginitis:

  • Keep vaginal area as dry as possible
  • Avoid excessive exertion and sweating
  • Avoid sexual activity until symptoms clear
  • Take showers instead of baths. Use unscented soap and avoid bubble bath and scented douches
  • Use proper hygiene after bowel movement by wiping from front to back
  • Wear cotton underwear and avoid pantyhose and tight-fitting pants
  • Avoid refined sugars (breads, pasta, baked goods, sweets)
  • Avoid dairy products, alcoholic beverages, peanuts, fresh or dried fruit, fruit juice, and all known food allergens
  • Eat whole foods with plenty of protein and fresh vegetables
  • Diet should be based on fresh, whole foods as good nutrition is essential for adequate immune function.
  • Some people with Candida infections develop an intolerance to yeasts, and find avoiding yeasts and fermented foods helpful.
  • Lactobacillus is helpful
  • Protein should be consumed at each meal
  • Rest during infection as much as possible to support immune function
  • Avoid or minimise stress as much as possible, as this reduces immune activity.
  • When taking antibiotics, supplement with lactobacillus acidophilus; avoid broad-spectrum antibiotics unless absolutely necessary

 

Pharmaceutical Treatments

Topical therapies: antifungal treatments for thrush include nystatin and imidazole

derivatives. They may initially cause burning due to the presence of inflammation.

Oral Antifungals: oral medications such as itraconazole (Sporanox) or terbinafine

(Lamisil) may be taken for more severe fungal infections. While these medicines may

clear severe fungal infections, they can cause numerous side effects.

Antibiotics: Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for bacterial vaginosis, and for

Trichomonas infection. Tinidazole is another example, while clindamycin is used as

an alternative in pregnancy.

Hormones: Indicated for atrophic vaginitis resulting from diminished levels of

circulating oestrogens. A relative lack of oestrogen also predisposes the vagina and

vulva to infection.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind Vaginitis using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are large, dilated, tortuous, elongated superficial veins resulting from valvular incompetence, weakness of the venous walls, or increased intraluminal pressure. Varicose veins may appear at any age, but the peak incidence is between 50 and 60 years of age. Varicose veins must be distinguished from spider veins or telangiectases, which are tiny, dilated, superficial veins visible on the skin surface. Once a vein segment dilates, valvular incompetence develops and blood refluxes. This increases pressure further causing vein dilation and elongation. Eventually this process may spread throughout the length of the vein and into the peripheral branches of the other veins. Varicose veins may account for 25% of venous ulcers.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind health disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. It is a result of a decrease in melanin production typically due to a tissue-specific Th1-mediated autoimmune process. Half of vitiligo patients develop signs of the disorder before the age of 20, with patches of de-pigmented skin appearing on the extremities. The patches may grow or remain constant in size. Patches often occur symmetrically across both sides on the body. Occasional small areas may repigment as they are recolonised by melanocytes.

The location of vitiligo affected skin changes over time, with some patches re-pigmenting and others becoming affected. In some cases, mild trauma to an area of skin seems to cause new patches – for example around the ankles (caused by friction with shoes or sneakers). Vitiligo on the scalp may sometimes affect the colour of the hair, leaving white patches or streaks. It will similarly affect whiskers and body hair.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind Vitiligo using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

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Warts

Warts are common, contagious but benign epithelial tumours caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Warts may appear at any age but most frequently occur in children.

Types of warts include:
• Common warts (Verruca vulgare)
• Flat warts (Verruca plana)
• Genital warts (Condyloma acuminatum)
• Plantar warts (Verruca plantaris)

All warts can be spread by direct or indirect contact, and can spread from one part of the body to another. Warts can disappear without treatment, and can recur throughout a persons life.

Benign neglect may be an acceptable treatment for warts, as 65% resolve within 2 years. Without treatment, however, patients risk warts that may enlarge or spread to other areas. Treatment is recommended for patients with extensive, spreading, or symptomatic warts or warts that have been present for more than 2 years.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating the cause behind health disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to correct the problem, or at the least, support the body through its process of self-regeneration.

Wilsons Disease

Wilson’s disease is what is termed an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, which means it is genetic.  Its main feature is accumulation of excess copper in bodily tissues, which then gives rise to neurological  and liver issues.  Wilson’s disease inhibits the release of copper into bile which is the normal excretion mode, making the excretion of copper from the body difficult, the copper then builds up in the liver and injures liver tissue. Eventually, the damage causes the liver to release the copper directly into the bloodstream and carries the copper throughout the body. This build-up of copper  leads to damage in the kidneys, brain and eyes. If not treated, Wilson’s disease can cause severe brain damage, liver failure, and even death.

In clinic, we take a comprehensive approach when investigating health disorders using various tests along with a detailed history analysis to determine the most suitable changes to diet, lifestyle and supplementation to support the body through its process of self-regeneration and clearing of the excess copper.